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Table 3 Summary statistics for participating and non-participating individuals, 2008

From: Payments for ecological restoration and internal migration in China: the sloping land conversion program in Ningxia

  Total Participating group Non-participating group Mean test
Individual characteristics     
Gender (% male) 0.519 0.523 0.511 NS
Age (years) 35.68 35.69 35.66 NS
Hui nationality 0.413 0.375 0.477 ***
Marital status (married %) 0.681 0.674 0.693 NS
Education (primary & below) 0.517 0.495 0.555 ***
Education (junior middle school) 0.310 0.330 0.277 ***
Above 9-year compulsory education 0.172 0.175 0.168 NS
Years of education 5.847 6.072 5.470 ***
Migrant (above 1 month) 0.243 0.283 0.176 ***
Migrant (above 3 months) 0.218 0.253 0.159 ***
Family characteristics at baseline (2002)
Household size 5.186 5.203 5.158 NS
Number of children under 15 1.870 1.864 1.881 NS
Number of adults 3.199 3.289 3.048 ***
Number of elderly 0.128 0.118 0.145 ***
Land per adult (mu) 9.466 8.217 11.55 **
Dry land (% of total land) 0.934 0.911 0.971 ***
Village information     
Proportion of migrants in the village labor force in 2002 (%) 23.26 21.74 25.81 ***
Lowest distance from village to the county center (km) 41.11 45.64 33.55 ***
Sample size 2,673 1,673 1,000  
  1. Source: Survey data collected by Beijing Normal University and Hitotsubashi University in 2009. The village geography information (from village to county center) is from Ningxia Autonomous Regional Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, 1989. Ningxia Autonomous Region: Atlas of Counties. Beijing: China Map Publishing House. Additional information comes from the Statistical Bureau of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (2008). Land and Resources Ningxia Statistical Yearbook, China Statistics Press, or has been collected from Google distance calculator: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.
  2. Notes: The mean test column indicates the significance level of mean differences between SLCP participating individuals and SLCP non-participating individuals. NS=not significant; *** significant at 1 percent.