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Table 3 Determinants of the decision to naturalise, multinomial probit marginal effects

From: From immigrants to (non-)citizens: political economy of naturalisations in Latvia

  Not willing to naturalise Plans to naturalise in the future Naturalised less than 5 years ago or currently naturalising Naturalised more than 5 years ago
Age 0.014*** −0.008*** −0.006*** 0.000
  (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Male 0.101** −0.020 −0.103*** 0.022
  (0.043) (0.049) (0.022) (0.036)
Married −0.117*** 0.051 0.021 0.045
  (0.042) (0.031) (0.016) (0.046)
Has a child under 18 0.029 0.022 −0.011 −0.040
  (0.089) (0.033) (0.057) (0.039)
Unemployed −0.128 −0.098 0.102 0.125
  (0.099) (0.074) (0.101) (0.118)
Works in public sector −0.084 −0.062 0.041 0.105**
  (0.084) (0.066) (0.032) (0.048)
Lives in rural area −0.007 0.048 0.057 −0.097
  (0.084) (0.093) (0.088) (0.081)
Low income 0.090 −0.011 −0.015 −0.064
  (0.060) (0.037) (0.021) (0.053)
Non-reported income 0.146* −0.075 −0.047** −0.023
  (0.078) (0.059) (0.019) (0.038)
Years of education −0.019** −0.001 0.011* 0.009
  (0.009) (0.004) (0.006) (0.008)
Good knowledge of Latvian −0.209*** −0.212*** −0.017 0.439***
  (0.061) (0.037) (0.047) (0.075)
Poor knowledge of Latvian 0.388*** 0.019 −0.132*** −0.274***
  (0.043) (0.043) (0.037) (0.034)
Former migrant 0.140** −0.040 0.029 −0.130***
  (0.071) (0.074) (0.030) (0.047)
Likely to migrate 0.022 0.041 −0.104** 0.041
  (0.042) (0.044) (0.044) (0.056)
Municipality unempl. rate 2007 −0.019 0.006 −0.020 0.033***
  (0.017) (0.015) (0.012) (0.010)
Municipality share of non-citizens 2007 −0.002 0.001 0.017*** −0.016**
  (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.006)
Pieriga province −0.013 −0.111*** 0.211*** −0.086
  (0.064) (0.040) (0.049) (0.062)
Vidzeme province −0.208** −0.146* 0.492*** −0.137
  (0.099) (0.084) (0.161) (0.096)
Kurzeme province −0.055 0.087* 0.183*** −0.215***
  (0.042) (0.048) (0.064) (0.023)
Zemgale province −0.051 −0.124** 0.313** −0.138
  (0.090) (0.057) (0.132) (0.085)
Latgale province 0.101** 0.010 0.083** −0.194***
  (0.051) (0.037) (0.039) (0.052)
  1. n = 624; Wald chi2 = 379.65; Prob > chi2 = 0.000; Log pseudolikelihood = −591.759.
  2. Note: Reference group - high income, average knowledge of Latvian, lives in Riga. Robust standard error clustered at municipality level in parentheses.
  3. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01.