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Table 4 Dealing with time-variant regressors: Two stage residual inclusion (2SRI) estimation marginal effects

From: From immigrants to (non-)citizens: political economy of naturalisations in Latvia

  Not willing to naturalise Plans to naturalise in the future Naturalised less than 5 years ago or currently naturalising Naturalised more than 5 years ago
EDUCATION  
Years of education −0.054 −0.017 0.022 0.049
(0.035) (0.034) (0.023) (0.038)
First stage residuals 0.037 0.020 −0.017 −0.040
  (0.037) (0.037) (0.024) (0.041)
Instruments 1) mother’s years of education; 2) father’s years of education
Instrument relevance 1st stage coefficients: mother’s education 0.167***, father’s education 0.137**
  R2 of excluded instruments 0.082; F-stat 22.22***
Instrument exogeneity LR test 0.552
LOCAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE  
Unemployment rate in 2007 −0.001 0.007 −0.051*** 0.045***
  (0.020) (0.016) (0.012) (0.016)
First stage residuals −0.047** −0.006 0.081*** −0.028
  (0.024) (0.022) (0.020) (0.029)
Instruments 1) unemployment rate in 1997; 2) distance (km) to the capital Riga
Instrument relevance 1st stage coefficients: unemployment rate in 1997 0.481***, distance to Riga 0.008*; R2 of excluded instruments 0.572; F-stat 69.56***
Instrument exogeneity LR test 0.831
Unemployment rate 1997 (MNP) 0.002 0.006 −0.032*** 0.024***
  (0.009) (0.008) (0.007) (0.009)
LOCAL SHARE OF NON-CITIZENS  
Share of non-citizens 2007 −0.002 −0.003 0.017*** −0.012*
  (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.007)
First stage residuals 0.002 0.019 0.001 −0.022
  (0.014) (0.013) (0.015) (0.018)
Instruments 1) share of non-citizens in 1997; 2) number of major factories in 1970
Instrument relevance 1st stage coefficients: share of non-citizens in 1997 0.490***, major factories in 1972 0.835***; R2 of excluded instruments 0.762; F-stat 678.81***
Instrument exogeneity LR test 0.124
Share of non-citizens 1997 (MNP) −0.002 −0.001 0.010*** −0.007*
  (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.004)
  1. Note: * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. Robust standard error clustered at municipality level in parentheses. MNP – multinomial probit estimation. All regressions include the same variables as in Table 3.