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Table 4 Immigrants and nonstandard hours, by subgroups, 2SLS

From: Do immigrants squeeze natives out of bad schedules? Evidence from Italy

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Dependent Variable: Overall Men Women Under 25 25‐54 Over 54 Low‐Skilled High‐Skilled
Non‐Standard Hours ‐0.020*** ‐0.021*** ‐0.019*** ‐0.015 ‐0.021*** ‐0.018** ‐0.024*** ‐0.010
  (0.006) (0.007) (0.006) (0.010) (0.006) (0.008) (0.006) (0.011)
Observations 684,530 406,111 278,419 44,860 554,563 85,107 580,925 103,605
Mean of Dep. Var. 0.28 0.31 0.24 0.29 0.28 0.25 0.28 0.27
log (hours worked) 0.009 0.006 0.010 0.004 0.010 0.007 0.009 0.001
  (0.008) (0.008) (0.009) (0.018) (0.007) (0.011) (0.008) (0.014)
Observations 631,040 379,994 251,046 42,686 510,541 77,813 537,473 93,567
Mean of Dep. Var. 0.56 0.67 0.44 0.23 0.72 0.32 0.53 0.78
Employment Rate 0.018** 0.012 0.025*** 0.007 0.018** 0.027** 0.021** 0.001
  (0.008) (0.008) (0.009) (0.013) (0.008) (0.012) (0.009) (0.011)
Observations 1,230,660 603,958 626,702 195,566 770,163 264,931 1,096,776 133,884
Mean of Dep. Var. 3.59 3.70 3.43 3.57 3.60 3.57 3.61 3.52
Standard errors in parentheses
*** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  1. Notes: The sample considered in the first is the overall working age population (15‐64) employed at the time of the interview when we analyze the effect of immigration on non‐standard hours and hours worked. The sample is the overall working age population when we analyze the effect on employment rate. All the specifications use the baseline model as specified in col. 4 of Table 1. Standard errors are clustered at the province level. The data sources are LFS (2006‐2008), Municipal Records (2006‐2008), ISTAT Province Accounts (1995) and Minister of Interior for Residence Permits issued at the province level as of 1995.