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Table 3 Quality adjustment indices and over-education rates by country of origin

From: The earnings of immigrants and the quality adjustment of immigrant human capital

Country Quality adjustment index Over-education prevalence
Before Adjustment After Adjustment
Algeria 1.185 80.05 94.4
Argentina 0.869 63.06 35.52
Australia 1.042 61.85 79.28
Austria 0.815 62.65 35.34
Bangladesh 0.898 74.73 63.71
Barbados 0.761 47.29 14.33
Belarus 0.668 72.65 10.86
Belgium 1.146 62.62 90.73
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.756 54.61 20.72
Brazil 0.746 63.95 18.65
Bulgaria 0.807 71.1 41.45
Canada 1.000 43.47 43.47
Chile 1.256 67.79 94.39
China 0.955 55.07 54.88
Colombia 0.864 74.24 51.12
Croatia 0.756 50.12 18.15
Cuba 0.803 78.07 48.55
Czech Republic 1.016 72.59 85.52
Czechoslovakia 1.016 64.86 85.61
Denmark 1.173 60.67 83.05
Egypt 0.970 79.41 79.41
Fiji 0.922 38.45 27.97
Finland 0.626 52.31 2.46
France 1.083 65.43 83.23
Germany 0.801 60.36 32.61
Ghana 0.804 66.79 34.51
Greece 0.848 29.88 15.85
Grenada 0.689 44.24 1.42
Guatemala 0.778 46.3 23.36
Guyana 0.814 50.15 22.73
Haiti 0.678 54.29 7.82
Hong Kong 1.241 54.71 90.1
Hungary 1.019 61.63 81.41
India 0.954 58.91 58.59
Indonesia 0.896 73.78 58.46
Iran 0.988 71.5 71.5
Iraq 0.976 59.42 59.42
Ireland 0.800 54.71 19.45
Israel 1.002 54.83 78.31
Italy 0.469 24.27 0
Jamaica 0.790 41.33 11.7
Japan 0.554 67.4 0.69
Korea, South 0.811 69.96 47.73
Malaysia 1.061 60.96 78.78
Malta 0.270 46.58 0
Mexico 0.820 41.42 22.12
Morocco 0.946 71.84 70.93
Netherlands 0.909 65.89 52.1
New Zealand 0.808 57.57 26.38
Nigeria 0.921 81.06 67.45
Norway 0.938 60.54 54.96
Pakistan 0.756 67.13 34.28
Peru 0.709 77.15 28.06
Philippines 0.571 71.25 0.81
Poland 0.653 68.52 5.27
Portugal 0.430 10.75 0
Romania 0.977 64.68 64.68
Russian Federation 0.668 67.2 9.98
Singapore 0.588 62.3 1.48
Slovakia 1.016 73.1 86.98
South Africa 1.274 64.54 97.24
Spain 0.670 54.71 7.52
Sri Lanka 1.019 52.46 72.74
Sudan 0.588 69.43 3.44
Sweden 0.960 64.92 64.92
Switzerland 1.634 68.19 98.97
Syria 0.443 62.75 0.35
Taiwan 0.908 65.79 54.13
Trinidad and Tobago 0.950 55.33 55.12
Turkey 0.976 44.6 44.6
U.S.S.R 0.661 68.51 11.80
UK 0.917 58.03 44.52
Ukraine 0.661 73.51 9.22
USA 0.875 58.16 40.03
Venezuela 0.635 74.09 4.88
Yugoslavia 0.756 57.13 21.79
  1. Source: Author’s calculations based on data from Canadian 2001 census. All results are weighted using the sampling weights available in the census.