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Table 4 Descriptive statistics for controls

From: The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

  Females Males
Variable Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max
Years since migration: 5-9 0.248 0.432 0 1 0.232 0.422 0 1
Years since migration: 10-19 0.183 0.386 0 1 0.235 0.424 0 1
Years since migration: 20- 0.166 0.372 0 1 0.176 0.381 0 1
From Turkey 0.151 0.358 0 1 0.114 0.318 0 1
From Europe (except former Yugoslavia) 0.090 0.286 0 1 0.082 0.274 0 1
From Africa (except Somalia) 0.071 0.256 0 1 0.081 0.273 0 1
From Somalia 0.096 0.294 0 1 0.120 0.325 0 1
From American countries 0.021 0.144 0 1 0.017 0.129 0 1
From Afghanistan 0.018 0.135 0 1 0.023 0.148 0 1
From Iraq 0.076 0.264 0 1 0.118 0.322 0 1
From Iran 0.050 0.218 0 1 0.063 0.243 0 1
From Sri Lanka 0.037 0.188 0 1 0.025 0.155 0 1
From other Asian countries 0.088 0.284 0 1 0.044 0.205 0 1
From Pakistan 0.043 0.203 0 1 0.037 0.188 0 1
From Libanon 0.059 0.236 0 1 0.087 0.282 0 1
From other countries 0.041 0.199 0 1 0.043 0.203 0 1
Family reunified to a refugee 0.128 0.334 0 1 0.044 0.204 0 1
Family reunified to non-refugee 0.169 0.375 0 1 0.099 0.298 0 1
EU residence permit 0.035 0.183 0 1 0.020 0.140 0 1
Unknown type of residence permit 0.313 0.464 0 1 0.343 0.475 0 1
Age 16-24 0.215 0.411 0 1 0.189 0.391 0 1
Age 25-34 0.400 0.490 0 1 0.378 0.485 0 1
Age 35-44 0.264 0.441 0 1 0.309 0.462 0 1
Children 3–6 years of age 0.194 0.395 0 1 0.122 0.327 0 1
Children 7–17 years of age 0.205 0.404 0 1 0.123 0.329 0 1
No children 0.321 0.467 0 1 0.531 0.499 0 1
Single 0.331 0.471 0 1 0.423 0.494 0 1
Working experience up to 1 year 0.224 0.417 0 1 0.279 0.448 0 1
Working experience 1–3 years 0.112 0.315 0 1 0.175 0.380 0 1
Working experience 3 years or more 0.064 0.245 0 1 0.120 0.325 0 1
Lives in provincial town municipality 0.343 0.475 0 1 0.326 0.469 0 1
Lives in a rural district 0.113 0.317 0 1 0.097 0.296 0 1
Danish education 0.166 0.372 0 1 0.217 0.413 0 1
Years of Danish education 1.694 3.858 0 20 2.205 4.281 0 20
Foreign education 0.346 0.476 0 1 0.325 0.468 0 1
Years of foreign education 3.876 5.656 0 18 3.957 5.962 0 18
No visits to doctors 0.150 0.357 0 1 0.241 0.428 0 1
5-9 visits to doctors 0.270 0.444 0 1 0.207 0.405 0 1
10-19 visits to doctors 0.220 0.414 0 1 0.108 0.310 0 1
20 or more visits to doctors 0.076 0.265 0 1 0.025 0.156 0 1
Local unemployment rate x 10 0.621 0.150 0.326 1.361 0.622 0.150 0.317 1.361
Social assistance spell began 1998 0.192 0.394 0 1 0.194 0.396 0 1
Social assistance spell began 1999 0.178 0.382 0 1 0.191 0.393 0 1
Social assistance spell began 2000 0.110 0.313 0 1 0.111 0.314 0 1
Social assistance spell began 2001 0.108 0.311 0 1 0.105 0.307 0 1
Social assistance spell began 2002 0.098 0.297 0 1 0.095 0.293 0 1
Social assistance spell began 2003 0.090 0.287 0 1 0.080 0.271 0 1
  1. Note. Reference categories are: Years since migration less than five years; from former Yugoslavia; refugee; 45–66 years of age; children 0–2 years of age; married or cohabiting; no working experience (in Denmark); lives in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen or one of the three largest provincial cities in Denmark; education unknown; 1–4 visits to doctors; spell began in 1997.