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Table 5 Means of controls for females by participation in ALMPs and two-sample t test statistics of equality with the non-participation group

From: The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    No ALMP   Wage subsidy  Direct employment   Other ALMPs
Variable    mean      mean     t   mean    t        mean      t
Years since migration: 5-9 0.258 0.236 −1.20 0.255 −0.31 0.220 −6.81
Years since migration: 10-19 0.192 0.222 1.68 0.189 −0.32 0.154 −7.78
Years since migration: 20- 0.174 0.147 −1.81 0.162 −1.56 0.149 −5.11
From Turkey 0.155 0.144 −0.77 0.139 −2.34 0.147 −1.77
From Europe (except former Yugoslavia) 0.091 0.084 −0.52 0.109 2.98 0.082 −2.30
From Africa (except Somalia) 0.074 0.045 −3.18 0.054 −4.37 0.070 −1.16
From Somalia 0.083 0.036 −5.92 0.068 −3.06 0.140 13.06
From American countries 0.023 0.018 −0.97 0.017 −2.32 0.018 −3.15
From Afghanistan 0.017 0.012 −1.09 0.018 0.46 0.024 3.73
From Iraq 0.068 0.044 −2.70 0.058 −2.21 0.103 9.17
From Iran 0.053 0.045 −0.80 0.047 −1.31 0.044 −3.03
From Sri Lanka 0.038 0.054 1.62 0.055 3.68 0.024 −6.46
From other Asian countries 0.093 0.150 3.78 0.083 −1.82 0.074 −5.38
From Pakistan 0.049 0.015 −6.39 0.029 −5.76 0.037 −4.41
From Libanon 0.058 0.037 −2.61 0.055 −0.73 0.066 2.41
From other countries 0.041 0.029 −1.69 0.037 −1.04 0.046 2.18
Family reunified to a refugee 0.120 0.072 −4.33 0.078 −7.59 0.169 10.52
Family reunified to non-refugee 0.175 0.149 −1.73 0.139 −5.19 0.167 −1.69
EU residence permit 0.036 0.019 −2.84 0.020 −5.20 0.038 0.92
Unknown type of residence permit 0.334 0.325 −0.43 0.297 −4.04 0.268 −11.06
Age 16-24 0.213 0.232 1.06 0.255 4.85 0.205 −1.54
Age 25-34 0.393 0.404 0.55 0.370 −2.31 0.428 5.49
Age 35-44 0.261 0.273 0.65 0.283 2.49 0.264 0.57
Children 3–6 years of age 0.188 0.191 0.20 0.211 2.91 0.204 3.20
Children 7–17 years of age 0.204 0.283 4.15 0.222 2.24 0.197 −1.30
No children 0.338 0.334 −0.17 0.329 −0.97 0.274 −10.78
Single 0.329 0.348 0.93 0.357 2.96 0.325 −0.70
Working experience up to 1 year 0.245 0.425 8.62 0.223 −2.64 0.159 −16.97
Working experience 1–3 years 0.126 0.156 1.98 0.100 −4.22 0.078 −12.46
Working experience 3 years or more 0.072 0.065 −0.67 0.046 −6.08 0.049 −7.95
Lives in provincial town municipality 0.327 0.549 10.51 0.491 16.70 0.317 −1.62
Lives in a rural district 0.114 0.146 2.12 0.186 9.54 0.085 −7.59
Danish education 0.176 0.228 2.93 0.221 5.60 0.118 −12.86
Years of Danish education 1.815 2.313 2.72 2.225 4.95 1.167 −14.21
Foreign education 0.334 0.340 0.31 0.360 2.83 0.374 6.45
Years of foreign education 3.755 3.803 0.21 4.063 2.74 4.121 4.91
No visits to doctors 0.142 0.101 −3.20 0.143 0.03 0.175 6.77
5-9 visits to doctors 0.274 0.287 0.68 0.262 −1.37 0.260 −2.33
10-19 visits to doctors 0.222 0.208 −0.81 0.217 −0.63 0.216 −1.13
20 or more visits to doctors 0.080 0.045 −3.85 0.074 −1.10 0.069 −3.15
Local unemployment rate x 10 0.619 0.634 2.27 0.628 2.96 0.624 2.56
Social assistance spell began 1998 0.187 0.161 −1.63 0.201 1.74 0.203 2.98
Social assistance spell began 1999 0.169 0.211 2.44 0.200 3.91 0.190 4.11
Social assistance spell began 2000 0.110 0.122 0.91 0.115 0.80 0.107 −0.64
Social assistance spell began 2001 0.111 0.075 −3.24 0.106 −0.94 0.104 −1.73
Social assistance spell began 2002 0.103 0.090 −1.06 0.096 −1.15 0.087 −4.04
Social assistance spell began 2003 0.103 0.045 −6.39 0.060 −8.88 0.073 −8.17
  1. Note. The columns denoted t show the two-sample t test statistics of equal means between spells characterized by participation in each of the three types of ALMPs and spells without ALMP participation.