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Table 6 Means of controls for males by participation in ALMPs and two-sample t test statistics of equality with the non-participation group

From: The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    No ALMP   Wage subsidy  Direct employment   Other ALMPs
Variable    mean      mean     t   mean   t        mean      t
Years since migration: 5-9 0.238 0.209 −2.47 0.229 −1.16 0.219 −3.56
Years since migration: 10-19 0.245 0.226 −1.62 0.233 −1.65 0.210 −6.65
Years since migration: 20- 0.180 0.164 −1.51 0.178 −0.33 0.167 −2.67
From Turkey 0.119 0.138 1.94 0.111 −1.40 0.097 −5.60
From Europe (except former Yugoslavia) 0.078 0.089 1.36 0.116 7.02 0.078 −0.09
From Africa (except Somalia) 0.085 0.063 −3.16 0.056 −7.01 0.084 −0.11
From Somalia 0.110 0.072 −5.24 0.101 −1.74 0.164 11.86
From American countries 0.017 0.012 −1.79 0.016 −0.45 0.018 0.36
From Afghanistan 0.021 0.021 0.05 0.021 0.28 0.029 3.95
From Iraq 0.110 0.087 −2.94 0.105 −0.97 0.152 9.43
From Iran 0.067 0.065 −0.23 0.056 −2.57 0.055 −3.81
From Sri Lanka 0.027 0.021 −1.45 0.038 3.53 0.013 −8.71
From other Asian countries 0.047 0.033 −2.76 0.049 0.45 0.035 −4.77
From Pakistan 0.040 0.023 −3.95 0.025 −4.97 0.036 −1.67
From Libanon 0.087 0.091 0.53 0.092 1.13 0.084 −0.87
From other countries 0.043 0.038 −0.88 0.040 −0.93 0.045 0.80
Family reunified to a refugee 0.041 0.041 0.05 0.044 0.87 0.053 4.56
Family reunified to non-refugee 0.104 0.095 −1.12 0.075 −6.28 0.093 −3.09
EU residence permit 0.021 0.015 −1.92 0.013 −4.15 0.020 −0.78
Unknown type of residence permit 0.355 0.312 −3.28 0.345 −1.13 0.311 −7.40
Age 16-24 0.195 0.216 1.78 0.203 1.13 0.159 −7.63
Age 25-34 0.371 0.380 0.68 0.367 −0.50 0.402 4.96
Age 35-44 0.303 0.317 1.06 0.320 2.13 0.319 2.69
Children 3–6 years of age 0.120 0.125 0.52 0.131 1.86 0.122 0.62
Children 7–17 years of age 0.122 0.148 2.66 0.133 1.87 0.121 −0.24
No children 0.543 0.522 −1.55 0.503 −4.59 0.506 −5.82
Single 0.430 0.417 −0.92 0.421 −0.99 0.403 −4.29
Working experience up to 1 year 0.291 0.397 7.72 0.267 −3.04 0.228 −11.35
Working experience 1–3 years 0.189 0.191 0.18 0.156 −5.14 0.139 −10.95
Working experience 3 years or more 0.129 0.129 −0.07 0.107 −4.09 0.095 −8.71
Lives in provincial town municipality 0.321 0.474 10.85 0.464 16.62 0.258 −10.99
Lives in a rural district 0.096 0.133 3.80 0.155 9.49 0.068 −8.35
Danish education 0.231 0.217 −1.16 0.228 −0.31 0.173 −11.62
Years of Danish education 2.352 2.202 −1.24 2.265 −1.17 1.735 −12.00
Foreign education 0.316 0.335 1.44 0.323 0.86 0.350 5.63
Years of foreign education 3.850 4.243 2.25 3.900 0.48 4.254 5.24
No visits to doctors 0.237 0.265 2.23 0.224 −1.78 0.255 3.24
5-9 visits to doctors 0.207 0.204 −0.29 0.206 −0.16 0.207 0.02
10-19 visits to doctors 0.111 0.083 −3.47 0.116 0.93 0.099 −3.03
20 or more visits to doctors 0.028 0.017 −2.72 0.021 −2.72 0.021 −3.36
Local unemployment rate x 10 0.620 0.643 5.10 0.635 5.34 0.619 −0.49
Social assistance spell began 1998 0.188 0.201 1.18 0.221 4.61 0.201 2.62
Social assistance spell began 1999 0.178 0.227 4.16 0.207 4.15 0.216 7.41
Social assistance spell began 2000 0.112 0.091 −2.50 0.112 0.00 0.113 0.42
Social assistance spell began 2001 0.108 0.080 −3.60 0.099 −1.75 0.104 −1.18
Social assistance spell began 2002 0.101 0.070 −4.25 0.088 −2.70 0.083 −5.04
Social assistance spell began 2003 0.091 0.045 −7.68 0.049 −10.54 0.066 −7.64
  1. Note. The columns denoted t show the two-sample t test statistics of equal means between spells characterized by participation in each of the three types of ALMPs and spells without ALMP participation.