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Table 4 Changes in crime and immigration

From: Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

   Dependent variable: change in crime rate  
  Annual Population Survey, 2004/5-2010/11
  OLS IV Aggregate IV A8 and Non-A8 OLS IV Aggregate IV A8 and Non-A8
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
A. England and Wales       
Change in immigrant share -0.069 (0.043) 0.005 (0.078) 0.003 (0.077) -0.051 (0.035) 0.007 (0.078) 0.000 (0.078)
Controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Police force area fixed effects No No No Yes Yes Yes
Sample size 347 347 347 347 347 347
B. London       
Change in immigrant share 0.042 (0.077) 0.100 (0.090) 0.099 (0.091) 0.092 (0.059) 0.120 (0.088) 0.108 (0.093)
Controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Police force area fixed effects No No No Yes Yes Yes
Sample size 33 33 33 33 33 33
  1. Notes: Weighted by population. Second stage estimates using first stages of Table 2 and Table 3. Controls are: population growth, the change in the unemployment rate, the change in the share of males aged 15–39 and a dummy variable for the 33 London boroughs. Robust standard errors in parentheses.