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Table 3 Attendance at religious services and prayer in Europe, 2002-2010 (adding ‘time since migration’ variables)

From: Bridges or buffers? Motives behind Immigrants’ Religiosity

Variables Attendance at religious services Frequency of prayer
EUROPE EUROPE
Immigrant var.   
First-generation immigrants - immigrated   
In last year 0.344 0.950**
1to 5 years ago 0.387*** 1.228***
6 to 10 years ago 0.336*** 0.838***
11to 20 years ago 0.311*** 0.653***
More than 20 years ago 0.189 0.373*
Second-generation immigrants 0.167* 0.355**
Socio-economic vars. Yes Yes
Religion denomination variables Yes Yes
Country dummies Yes Yes
Wave dummies Yes Yes
Sample size 107,361 107,361
R-squared 0.183 0.191
  1. *p-value < 0.10; **p-value < 0.05; ***p-value < 0.01.
  2. Notes: Data on ‘time since migration’ is not available for the US.
  3. Reference group = Native residents.