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Table 4 Attendance at religious services and prayer in Europe and the US (2002-2010)

From: Bridges or buffers? Motives behind Immigrants’ Religiosity

Variables Attendance at religious services Attendance at religious services Frequency of prayer Frequency of prayer
EUROPE US EUROPE US
Immigrant var.     
 First generation 0.272*** 0.342*** 0.646*** −0.133**
 Second generation 0.166* −0.072 0.353** −0.109
Socio-economic vars.     
Age (years)     
30 and under ref. ref. ref. ref.
31 to 45 0.110*** 0.037 0.225*** 0.198***
46 to 59 0.220*** 0.144 0.471*** 0.364***
60 and over 0.501*** 0.605*** 1.033*** 0.360***
Education (years completed)     
Less than 6 ref. ref. ref. ref.
7 to 12 -0.141** -0.236 -0.253*** -0.186*
13 to 16 −0.088 0.209 −0.259*** −0.069
17 and over 0.027 0.703*** −0.095 −0.027
Female 0.302*** 0.559*** 0.971*** 0.704***
Members in household 0.070*** 0.061** 0.086*** 0.012
Marital status     
Single ref. ref. ref. ref.
Married 0.126*** 0.663*** 0.175*** 0.210***
Divorced −0.127*** −0.133 0.083* 0.082
Widowed 0.143*** 0.620*** 0.533*** 0.256***
Low income −0.006 −0.220 0.200*** 0.150**
Employment status     
Retired/student/home ref. ref. ref. ref.
Employee -0.251*** 0.049 -0.237*** -0.146***
Self-employed −0.177** −0.085 −0.135* −0.099
Unemployed −0.115*** −0.246 −0.125** −0.107
Religion var.     
Catholic ref. ref. ref. ref.
Protestant: −0.321**   −0.425  
Black   −0.173*   0.074
Evangelical   0.705***   0.358***
Mainline   −0.461***   −0.311***
Orthodox −0.431* −0.850* −0.407 −0.556*
Other Christian 0.725*** 0.070 0.986*** 0.346***
Jewish −0.400** −1.594*** −0.292 −1.313***
Moslem −0.162 0.556 0.333 0.771**
Country dummies Yes - Yes -
Wave dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sample size 107,361 6,547 107,361 6,547
R-squared 0.183 0.079 0.190 0.124
  1. *p-value < 0.10; **p-value < 0.05; ***p-value < 0.01.