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Table 4 Firm characteristics, by technological intensity

From: Do high-skill immigrants raise productivity? Evidence from Israeli manufacturing firms, 1990-1999

  Low-tech Medium-low tech Medium-high tech High-tech
  1990 1993 1997 1990 1993 1997 1990 1993 1997 1990 1993 1997
Number of firms 990 1,061 832 629 703 655 305 324 284 152 166 179
Total Employment 129,215 145,976 137,841 74,353 91,446 109,470 51,030 48,904 49,768 40,018 46,916 56,555
Average years of Schooling 10.63 11.01 11.68 11.37 11.82 12.27 11.81 12.53 12.62 13.27 14.00 14.26
Percentage Scientists - 0.53% 1.27% - 2.43% 3.51% - 6.45% 8.15% - 23.43% 31.99%
Percentage of firms doing R&D - 0.59% 0.04% - 0.96% 0.54% - 4.46% 4.26% - 16.05% 21.03%
  1. Note: Author’s calculations from the 1990-1999 Manufacturing Surveys, Labor Force Composition Surveys, and Labor Force Surveys. For the classification of industries by technological intensity, see Table 14 in Appendix.