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Table 1 Definitions of governance variables

From: Skilled migration and the transfer of institutional norms

Variable Definition Sources
Voice and accountability The extent to which a country's citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media. Kaufmann (1999)
Political stability The likelihood that the government will not be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically motivated violence and terrorism. Kaufmann (1999)
Government effectiveness The quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies. Kaufmann (1999)
Regulatory quality The ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permits and promotes private sector development. Kaufmann (1999)
Rule of law The extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the absence of crime and violence. Kaufmann (1999)
Control of corruption The extent to which public power is not exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as "capture" of the state by elites and private interests. Kaufmann (1999)