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Table 2 Descriptive statistics regarding the governance variables

From: Skilled migration and the transfer of institutional norms

  Mean Standard deviation Minimum Maximum Number of observations
Voice and accountability      
Δ I it 0.000 0.404 -1.285 1.570 190
I it-1 -0.040 1.006 -1.983 1.712 190
N it-1 Total migration 0.156 0.297 0.000 2.287 190
N it-1 Skilled migration 0.160 0.310 0.001 2.480 190
Political stability      
Δ I it -0.429 0.957 -3.049 1.277 178
I it-1 0.289 0.123 0.171 0.660 178
N it-1 Total migration 0.378 0.006 0.350 0.423 178
N it-1 Skilled migration 0.378 0.005 0.362 0.420 178
Government effectiveness      
Δ I it 0.001 0.374 -1.067 1.042 178
I it-1 -0.045 1.009 -1.799 2.534 178
N it-1 Total migration 0.190 0.472 -0.024 2.932 178
N it-1 Skilled migration 0.196 0.489 -0.006 3.298 178
Regulatory quality      
Δ I it -0.172 0.123 -0.479 -0.048 180
I it-1 0.363 0.145 0.219 0.670 180
N it-1 Total migration -0.001 0.032 -0.185 0.083 180
N it-1 Skilled migration -0.001 0.032 -0.185 0.083 180
Rule of law      
Δ I it -0.386 1.089 -2.954 1.855 165
I it-1 0.272 0.170 0.149 0.793 165
N it-1 Total migration 0.312 0.004 0.301 0.334 165
N it-1 Skilled migration 0.311 0.002 0.305 0.328 165
Control of corruption      
Δ I it -0.037 0.450 -1.690 0.921 149
I it-1 0.010 1.084 -2.130 2.440 149
N it-1 Total migration 2.420 0.364 1.081 2.972 149
N it-1 Skilled migration 2.501 0.271 1.334 2.998 149
m it-1 Total migration 8.261 16.096 0.023 89.303 193
m it-1 Skilled migration 2.525 5.035 0.011 33.761 193
H it-1 7.718 7.033 0.144 43.820 193
  1. Notes: I it-1 and Δ I it refer to the (lagged) level and the change within the decade of institutional values. N it-1 refers to the (lagged) value of the norms in terms of the governance dimension either transmitted by all migrants or by skilled migrants only; m it-1 refers to migration rates ; H it-1 refers to human capital levels.