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Table 8 The impact of migration on the change in institutions (1990–2000) Developing countries

From: Skilled migration and the transfer of institutional norms

  Voice and accountability SURE Government effectiveness SURE Regulatory quality SURE Control of corruption 2SLS
Total migration
I t - 1. .092 0.011 -0.842*** -0.368***
  (1.788)* (0.191) (88.782) (5.287)
m t - 1. .876 -0.134 0.046*** 1.482***
  (1.145) (0.094) (5.185) (2.493)
N t - 1. 644* 0.181 -0.045 0.012
  (1.684) (0.377) (0.883) (0.089)
H t - 1. 636 0.996 0.038 2.513***
  (0.807) (1.476) (1.475) (2.862)
Constant -0.082 -0.051 0.123*** -0.492
  (1.212) (0.827) (27.154) (1.446)
Observations 138 138 138 102
Sargan-test .. .. .. 0.51
Adjusted R2 0.05 0.05 0.99 0.28
Skilled migration
I t - 1. .084* 0.014 -0.841*** -0.369***
  (1.688) (0.260) (88.649) (5.341)
m t - 1. .670* -1.090 0.147*** 3.787**
  (1.888) (0.722) (5.132) (2.139)
N t - 1. 542*** 0.234 -0.049 0.141
  (2.654) (1.584) (0.950) (0.856)
H t - 1. 614 0.997 0.039 2.887***
  (0.788) (1.481) (1.510) (3.171)
Constant -0.070 -0.048 0.122*** -0.811*
  (1.043) (0.809) (27.055) (1.868)
Observations 138 138 138 102
Sargan-test .. .. .. 0.52
Adjusted R2 0.07 0.05 0.99 0.29
  1. Robust t-statistics in parentheses, * significant at 10% level; ** significant at 5% level; *** significant at 1% level, F-test for testing for weak instruments (>10 means strong instruments); Sargan-test: p-value reported, null hypothesis = validity of exclusion restriction.