Skip to main content

Table 2 Determinants of aspirations: differences between migrants andnon-migrants

From: Migration and aspirations – are migrants trapped on a hedonic treadmill?

  1 year aspirations (2000 Survey) 5 year aspirations (2007 Survey)
DV: Aspiration gap Full sample Migrants Non-migrants Test Full sample Migrants Non-migrants Test
(1) (2) (3) (2) > (3) (4) (5) (6) (5) > (6)
Past migration 0.04** (0.002)     0.05*** (0.000)    
Age group: 25–39 yearsa -0.02 (0.178) -0.04 (0.121) -0.01 (0.481) (0.153) -0.09*** (0.000) -0.07* (0.038) -0.09*** (0.000) (0.669)
Age group: 40–65 years -0.13*** (0.000) -0.14** (0.002) -0.13*** (0.000) (0.383) -0.23*** (0.000) -0.27*** (0.000) -0.22*** (0.000) (0.207)
Age group: >65 years -0.18*** (0.000) -0.28** (0.002) -0.17*** (0.000) (0.126) -0.38*** (0.000) -0.41*** (0.000) -0.38*** (0.000) (0.393)
Men -0.01 (0.265) 0.04 (0.143) -0.02* (0.045) (0.985) 0.04* (0.011) 0.04 (0.314) 0.04* (0.023) (0.498)
No educationb -0.00 (0.781) -0.0076 (0.908) -0.00 (0.762) (0.485) -0.08*** (0.000) -0.16 (0.124) -0.07*** (0.001) (0.189)
Junior high school 0.05*** (0.000) 0.03 (0.368) 0.05*** (0.000) (0.212) 0.06*** (0.000) 0.01 (0.753) 0.07*** (0.000) (0.121)
Senior high school 0.07*** (0.000) 0.07* (0.024) 0.07*** (0.000) (0.535) 0.12*** (0.000) 0.07 (0.103) 0.13*** (0.000) (0.097)
Higher education 0.11*** (0.000) 0.10* (0.026) 0.13*** (0.000) (0.280) 0.20*** (0.000) 0.15** (0.005) 0.20*** (0.000) (0.189)
Edu gap:own vs. highest in the HH -0.00 (0.921) 0.03 (0.115) -0.00 (0.597) (0.948) 0.01 (0.060) -0.00 (0.838) 0.02* (0.034) (0.196)
Hours worked per week 0.00*** (0.001) 0.00 (0.410) 0.00*** (0.001) (0.330) 0.00* (0.016) 0.00 (0.166) 0.00 (0.071) (0.717)
Total monthly income(ln) 0.00 (0.730) -0.00 (0.433) 0.00 (0.450) (0.176) -0.00 (0.947) -0.01* (0.039) 0.00 (0.318) (0.013)
Community participation 0.03** (0.003) 0.01 (0.743) 0.04** (0.002) (0.218) 0.00 (0.842) -0.00 (0.907) 0.00 (0.758) (0.409)
Married 0.03** (0.009) 0.08** (0.003) 0.02 (0.206) (0.984) 0.02 (0.121) 0.02 (0.575) 0.02 (0.168) (0.462)
HH head -0.03* (0.035) -0.08* (0.018) -0.02 (0.264) (0.038) -0.07*** (0.000) -0.07 (0.128) -0.07*** (0.000) (0.551)
Age HH head: 40–65 yearsa 0.02 (0.135) 0.03 (0.289) 0.01 (0.304) (0.718) -0.05** (0.006) -0.05 (0.198) -0.04* (0.021) (0.407)
Age HH head: >65 years 0.01 (0.714) 0.02 (0.706) 0.00 (0.956) (0.624) -0.05* (0.049) -0.11 (0.108) -0.04 (0.166) (0.146)
HH expenditure – 1st quantilec 0.01 (0.357) 0.0 (0.915) 0.01 (0.365) (0.419) -0.05*** (0.000) -0.06 (0.142) -0.05** (0.001) (0.383)
HH expenditure – 4th quantile 0.01 (0.200) -0.01 (0.783) 0.02 (0.118) (0.181) 0.02 (0.285) -0.01 (0.738) 0.02 (0.167) (0.173)
Household with farm income 0.01 (0.542) 0.00 (0.952) 0.01 (0.465) (0.417) 0.02 (0.113) 0.05 (0.175) 0.02 (0.280) (0.804)
Household with non-farm business 0.02* (0.013) 0.03 (0.260) 0.02* (0.033) (0.599) 0.04** (0.003) 0.04 (0.178) 0.03* (0.011) (0.626)
Female headed HH -0.00 (0.787) -0.02 (0.484) -0.00 (0.802) (0.307) 0.04* (0.018) 0.05 (0.205) 0.04* (0.048) (0.605)
HH adults -0.00 (0.411) -0.01* (0.024) -0.00 (0.934) (0.019) 0.00 (0.492) 0.01 (0.139) 0.00 (0.823) (0.880)
HH children age 0-4 0.01 (0.059) -0.01 (0.396) 0.02* (0.019) (0.045) 0.02* (0.045) 0.01 (0.614) 0.02 (0.067) (0.402)
HH children age 5-9 -0.00 (0.538) 0.02 (0.165) -0.01 (0.221) (0.962) 0.02* (0.045) -0.00 (0.875) 0.02* (0.016) (0.136)
HH children age 10-14 0.00 (0.935) -0.04** (0.008) 0.01 (0.268) (0.002) -0.00 (0.785) -0.05* (0.047) 0.00 (0.597) (0.029)
Household with TV 0.01 (0.277) 0.03 (0.244) 0.01 (0.472) (0.792) -0.00 (0.801) -0.00 (0.924) -0.00 (0.921) (0.481)
Rural HH 0.00 (0.899) 0.00 (0.886) 0.00 (0.836) (0.520) 0.01 (0.355) 0.02 (0.612) 0.01 (0.464) (0.570)
Average HH asset value 0.00 (0.868) 0.01 (0.512) -0.00 (0.750) (0.770) -0.01 (0.104) -0.01 (0.713) -0.02 (0.079) (0.751)
Ethnic fractionalization 0.04 (0.135) -0.03 (0.538) 0.06* (0.033) (0.067) -0.03 (0.401) -0.03 (0.685) -0.01 (0.801) (0.394)
Constant 0.28** (0.003) 0.29 (0.081) 0.32** (0.006)   0.96*** (0.000) 0.92*** (0.000) 1.01*** (0.000)  
Province dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
N 23109 3747 19362   20717 3598 17119  
R 2 0.043 0.055 0.042   0.085 0.077 0.081  
adj. R2 0.041 0.043 0.040   0.082 0.065 0.079  
AIC 41654.6 7165.8 34470.2   45748.3 8302.7 37463.4  
  1. Notes: p-values in parentheses. Significance levels:*p < 0.05,**p < 0.01,***p < 0.001. Not reported controlvariables (not significant): Job occupation (private worker, self-employed,unpaid family work, government).