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Table 2 Descriptive statistics (weighted means by immigrations status)

From: Immigration status and property crime: an application of estimators for underreported outcomes

Variables Definition Weighted means DIfference Min Max
   All Natives Immigrants    
Crime variables        
Property_c a Reported number of committed property crimes in last year 0.342 0.366 0.160 -0.206*** 0 225
   (5.858) (6.011) (2.218)    
Property_b = 1 if respondent reported a property crime last year, = 0 otherwise 0.055 0.057 0.039 -0.018** 0 1
Violent_c b reported number of committed violent crimes in last year 0.286 0.310 0.107 -0.202*** 0 512
   (4.132) (4.252) (0.918)    
Violent_b = 1 if respondent reported a violent crime last year, = 0 otherwise 0.054 0.056 0.036 -0.020*** 0 1
Explanatory variables        
Immigrant = 1 if respondent lived all life in the UK, = 0 otherwise 0.119     0 1
Age Age of respondent in years 36.738 36.554 38.098 1.544*** 10 66
Male = 1 if respondent is a male, = 0 otherwise 0.497 0.496 0.505 0.008 0 1
White = 1 if respondent is white, = 0 otherwise 0.909 0.956 0.553 -0.404*** 0 1
Black = 1 if respondent is black, = 0 otherwise 0.023 0.010 0.120 0.101*** 0 1
Mixed = 1 if respondent is of mixed ethnicity, = 0 otherwise 0.012 0.008 0.039 0.031*** 0 1
Asian&Other c = 1 if respondent is Asian or any other ethnicity, = 0 otherwise 0.056 0.022 0.214 0.262*** 0 1
North = 1 if resp. lives in North or North West, or Yorks & Humperside, = 0 otherwise, 0.274 0.288 0.175 -0.112*** 0 1
Midlands = 1 if resp. lives in East Midlands, or West Midlands, or Wales, = 0 otherwise 0.235 0.246 0.150 -0.097*** 0 1
South = 1 if resp. lives in East Anglia, or South East, or South West, = 0 otherwise 0.351 0.358 0.298 -0.060*** 0 1
London d = 1 if respondent lives in London, = 0 otherwise 0.139 0.107 0.376 0.268*** 0 1
Deprivation e Integer values from 1 [ = least deprived] to 10 [ = most deprived] 5.500 5.426 6.023 0.597*** 1 10
Truthful = 1 if respondent said that answered crime questions truthfully, = 0 otherwise 0.942 0.946 0.915 -0.031*** 0 1
Other_Present = 1 if someone else present during self-completions, = 0 otherwise 0.285 0.288 0.263 -0.025* 0 1
  1. aProperty crime consists of: thefts and attempted vehicle thefts, thefts and attempted thefts of parts from inside or outside vehicles, robberies, burglaries, thefts form person, work, school, shops, other thefts and criminal damage.[-1pt] bViolent crime consists of: assaults with and without injuries and robberies. Note that only 9 individuals reported committing a robbery.[-1pt] c50% of respondents that belong to OTHER ethnic group are Chinese. This is why people who belong to ASIAN or OTHER ethnicity are grouped in one variable.[-1pt] dThe grouping of regions into four groups was inevitable since estimation of the effects of all 9 dummies on both crime and reporting behaviour was impossible.[-1pt] eThis is the Multiple Deprivation Index of England, constructed as a weighted mixture of the individual deprivation indices of income, employment, health, education, crime, barriers to housing and living environment at the Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs). Very briefly, this index takes integer values from 1 [least deprived] to 10 [most deprived] indicating the decile of deprivation in which a respondent scores. For example, if someone scores at the 7th decile, only 30% of the population resides in more deprived areas. Each respondent, depending on the LSOA he/she resides, is matched by the Home Office to the corresponding decile of this variable.[-1pt] Weighted Standard Deviations in Parentheses.[-1pt] *, **, *** denote 10%, 5%, 1% level of significance respectively.