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Table 5 Robustness checks - binary models

From: Immigration status and property crime: an application of estimators for underreported outcomes

  Probit MisProbit
   No ethnicity Baseline Depr.Index No Excl. Other present No weights 10-25 Violent
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
  β ~ β ̂ γ ̂ β ̂ β ̂ β ̂ β ̂ β ̂ β ̂ β ̂
Immigrant -0.127 -0.429* 0.598 -0.309 -0.311 -0.351 -0.246 -0.434*** -0.243 -0.147
  (0.102) (0.225) (0.485) (0.235) (0.232) (0.271) (0.393) (0.159) (0.245) (0.277)
Age -.0178** -0.264*** 0.323*** -0.268*** -0.261*** -0.288*** -0.226 -0.279*** -0.194*** -0.332***
  (0.007) (0.049) (0.075) (0.049) (0.046) (0.044) (0.158) (0.037) (0.031) (0.042)
Age 2 0.0001 0.004*** -0.005*** 0.003*** 0.004*** 0.004*** 0.003 0.004***   0.005***
  (0.0001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.001)   (0.001)
Male 0.362*** 0.318** 0.458** 0.321** 0.277* 0.308** 0.345* 0.335*** 0.084 0.149
  (0.049) (0.139) (0.227) (0.140) (0.147) (0.152) (0.201) (0.112) (0.197) (0.133)
White     0.245 0.183 0.176 0.284 0.249 0.448* 0.259
     (0.201) (0.199) (0.248) (0.290) (0.158) (0.259) (0.197)
South 0.089 0.308 -0.394 0.27 0.256 0.272 0.185 0.104 -0.082 -0.282
  (0.082) (0.198) (0.330) (0.203) (0.196) (0.238) (0.373) (0.144) (0.259) (0.276)
Midlands 0.061 0.14 -0.208 0.124 0.225 0.098 0.056 0.082 -0.07 -0.184
  (0.084) (0.188) (0.340) (0.200) (0.221) (0.214) (0.226) (0.171) (0.268) (0.274)
North 0.066 0.531* -0.796** 0.509** 0.543** 0.526* 0.362 0.21 -0.021 -0.197
  (0.086) (0.243) (0.336) (0.260) (0.248) (0.311) (0.571) (0.171) 0.28 0.282
Deprivation      -0.033      
      (0.028)      
Constant -1.204*** 2.597*** -3.742*** 2.867*** 3.046*** 3.328*** 1.999 3.098*** 2.979*** 4.181***
  (0.127) (0.895) (0.608) (0.935) (0.896) (0.928) (3.150) (0.623) (0.890) (0.789)
Truthful    -1.211*** -1.231*** -1.280***    -1.573*** -1.739*** -1.213***
    (0.267) (0.264) (0.250)    (0.202) (0.287) (0.276)
Other Present        -0.393    
        (0.368)    
Sample size 11,658 11,658 11,658 10,993 11,658 11,658 11,658 5,023 11,667
Log likelihood -1,452.88 -1,427.97 -1,422.51 -1,343.88 -1,432.72 -1,430.48 -2,444.18 -650.08 -1,310.73
Prob of committing a crime 0.064 0.370 0.370 0.370 0.422 0.279 0.362 0.514 0.368
Prob of reporting a crime   0.290 0.272 0.270 0.224 0.365 0.289 0.298 0.300
  1. Note: because of space limitations, only specification (2) presents both the estimates from the crime equation ( β ̂ ) and reporting equation ( γ ̂ ). Specifications (3) to (9), although also obtained using the MisProbit model, only present the estimates for criminal behaviour. The presented estimated effects of TRUTHFULNESS and OTHER PRESENT are however from the reporting equation. Quasi Maximum Likelihood Standard Errors in Parentheses. *, **, *** denote 10%, 5%, 1% level of significance respectively.