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Table 3 Impact of diversity on satisfaction with life overall, instrumental variables

From: Cultural diversity and subjective well-being

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Country of birth (not UK) Country of birth Ethnicity Religion
White British (N = 22,725)     
Proportion of white British 0.294***    
  (0.064)    
Fractionalisation by … -0.044 -0.352*** -0.215*** -0.318**
  (0.186) (0.065) (0.051) (0.144)
First stage regressions for Prop white British     
Proportion of white British (by county) 0.098***    
Proportion of white British 2001 1.187***    
Fractionalisation by … (by county) 0.147**    
Fractionalisation by … 2001 -0.109**    
First stage regressions for Fractionalisation     
Proportion of white British (by county) 0.007    
Proportion of white British 2001 0.090***    
Fractionalisation by … (by county/region)a 0.389*** 0.128*** 0.120*** -0.067***
Fractionalisation by … 2001 0.621*** 1.068*** 1.053*** 0.854***
Weak identification test (Kleibergen-Paap) 6694 61993 69434 90807
Hansen J test for over-identifying restrictions 1.577 0.577 2.446 10.072
Hansen J test P-value 0.455 0.447 0.118 0.001
Non-White BritishSecond Generation (N = 2,188)     
Proportion of white British 0.080    
  (0.146)    
Fractionalisation by … 0.200 -0.047 -0.136 -0.027
  (0.472) (0.159) (0.142) (0.346)
First stage regressions for Prop white British     
Proportion of white British (by county) 0.142***    
Proportion of white British 2001 1.038***    
Fractionalisation by … (by county) 0.244***    
Fractionalisation by … 2001 -0.108*    
First stage regressions for fractionalisation     
Proportion of white British (by county) -0.007    
Proportion of white British 2001 0.132***    
Fractionalisation by … (by county/region)a 0.246* 0.180*** 0.169*** -0.111***
Fractionalisation by … 2001 0.670*** 0.887*** 0.806*** 0.779***
Weak identification test (Kleibergen-Paap) 1745 19137 10146 11120
Hansen J test for over-identifying restrictions 9.118 2.087 1.931 0.005
Hansen J test P-value 0.010 0.148 0.165 0.944
Foreign born – Immigrants (N = 5,571)     
Proportion of white British 0.066    
  (0.094)    
Fractionalisation by … 0.489 -0.046 -0.071 -0.274
  (0.400) (0.105) (0.086) (0.233)
First stage regressions for Prop white British     
Proportion of white British (by county) 0.155***    
Proportion of white British 2001 1.031***    
Fractionalisation by … (by county) 0.270***    
Fractionalisation by … 2001 -0.126**    
First stage regressions for fractionalisation     
Proportion of white British (by county) 0.004    
Proportion of white British 2001 0.124***    
Fractionalisation by … (by county/region)a 0.344*** 0.196*** 0.211*** -0.099***
Fractionalisation by … 2001 0.609*** 0.875*** 0.790*** 0.784***
Weak identification test (Kleibergen-Paap) 2371 62611 42248 39841
Hansen J test for over-identifying restrictions 5.910 1.301 0.102 1.657
Hansen J test P-value 0.052 0.254 0.750 0.198
  1. Standard errors in parenthesis are clustered by district; other covariates included in the model: six dummies for satisfaction with health; dummies for female, married/cohabiting; presence of children aged 0–4, 5–11 and 12–15; six ethnic groups (where applicable); having a degree; whether employed; whether unemployed; equivalised household income; age and its square; dummy for rural area; index of multiple deprivation (average by district). aThe instrument is the measure of diversity at county level (NUTS2) for religion, and at the Government Office Region level (NUTS1) for country of birth and ethnicity.
  2. *Significant at 5%, **Significant at 5%, ***Significant at 1%.