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Table 2 Estimated returns to years of schooling and years of work experience—Males

From: Human capital quality and the immigrant wage gap

Variables Canadian born (1) Model 1 (no difference in quality) Model 2 (Model 1 + country of birth schooling + country of birth work experience + country of birth fixed effects) Model 3 (Model 2 + direct effect of q) Model 4 (Model 3 + interaction effects of q) Model 5 (Model 4 + occupation and industry indicators)
Immigrants (2) (2) - (1) Immigrants (3) (3) - (1) Immigrants (4) (4) - (1) Immigrants (5) (5) - (1)
α 1 (S) 0.080 (258) 0.066 (108) -0.013 (19.) 0.068 (96.) -0.012 (15.) 0.068 (51.) -0.012 (8.8) 0.070 (61.) -0.010 (8.5) 0.049 (51.)
θ 1 (q I )       0.042 (6.8)   -0.005 (0.7)   -0.014 (2.2)
θ 2 (s f )     -0.001 (1.1)   -.0003 (0.3)   -0.001 (0.7)   .0005 (0.6)
θ 3 (s f q s )         0.002 (5.7)   0.003 (8.0)
θ 4 (s f f dip )     -0.004 (12.)   -0.004 (9.6)   0.002 (4.1)   0.002 (4.6)
θ 5 (s f f dip q s )         0.004 (12.)   0.003 (11.)
β 1 (X) 0.049 (184) 0.035 (52.) -0.015 (21.) 0.044 (61.) -0.006 (7.2) 0.044 (36.) -0.005 (6.8) 0.045 (43.) -0.004 (6.3) 0.044 (50.)
β 2 (X 2 ) -0.078 (131) -0.048 (36.) 0.030 (21.) -0.072 (44.) 0.006 (3.5) -0.073 (24.) 0.005 (3.1) -0.074 (29.) 0.005 (2.8) -0.071 (34.)
θ 6 (x f )     -0.025 (28.)   -0.026 (14.)   -0.014 (5.7)   -0.015 (7.2)
θ 7 (Xx f )     0.075 (22.)   0.078 (10.)   0.047 (5.7)   0.048 (7.2)
θ 8 (x f 2 )     -0.044 (15.)   -0.047 (10.)   -0.039 (5.6)   -0.033 (5.7)
θ 9 (x f q x )         0.006 (5.0)   0.005 (5.1)
θ 10 (Xx f q x )         -0.011 (2.9)   -0.012 (4.2)
θ 11 (x f 2 q x )         0.008 (1.5)   0.011 (2.8)
θ 12 (x f 2 q x 2 )         0.003 (2.9)   0.003 (3.0)
n 588,045 136,545 136,545 136,545 136,545 136,545
R 2 0.30 0.19 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.38
  1. Absolute t-ratio in parentheses where standard errors were obtained by a cluster bootstrap in the regressions that include q. The dependent variable is ln(weekly earnings). Also included in regressions are five regions of residence indicators and, for models two to five, 47 immigrant country of birth dichotomous variables. For model 5, nine occupation and nineteen industry indicators are also included in the regression. The estimated returns to the variables in X2,x f 2 and Xx f have been multiplied by 100.
  2. Source: Calculations from statistics Canada 2006 census data.