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Table 4 Gini coefficient as a function of labor force quality

From: How skilled immigration may improve economic equality

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Upper secondary and higher Post-secondary and higher
OLS Quality weighted Random effects OLS Quality weighted Random effects
Share of highly educated in the labor force -0.83** -0.75** -0.81** -0.31** -0.32** -0.29**
(0.16) (0.17) (0.17) (0.13) (0.12) (0.13)
Share of highly educated in the labor force, sq/100 0.56** 0.49** 0.54** 0.24** 0.24** 0.22*
(0.15) (0.14) (0.14) (0.11) (0.11) (0.12)
Inflation rate 0.21 0.18 0.18 0.11 0.09 0.08
(0.26) (0.24) (0.25) (0.24) (0.26) (0.28)
Share of population -0.52 -0.44 -0.60 -0.68 -0.44 -0.78
15-64 years of age (0.48) (0.48) (0.49) (0.57) (0.51) (0.53)
Unemployment rate 2.95** 2.92** 2.95** 2.09** 2.19** 2.11**
(0.83) (0.52) (0.54) (0.71) (0.56) (0.59)
Women’s unemployment rate -1.87** -1.86** -1.88** -1.34** -1.42** -1.36**
(0.59) (0.39) (0.40) (0.53) (0.42) (0.44)
Participation rate 0.11 0.32 0.16 0.47 0.67* 0.54
(0.40) (0.39) (0.39) (0.34) (0.38) (0.41)
Women’s participation rate -0.31 -0.44 -0.35 -0.47* -0.59** -0.52*
(0.32) (0.30) (0.31) (0.24) (0.28) (0.30)
Share of labor force in agriculture -0.34 -0.29 -0.32* -0.20 -0.18 -0.16
(0.26) (0.18) (0.18) (0.21) (0.18) (0.19)
Government size -0.41 -0.36* -0.40** -0.43* -0.36* -0.41**
(0.25) (0.19) (0.19) (0.23) (0.19) (0.20)
GDP per capita, 1000 s USD 0.06 0.05 0.05 -0.08 -0.08 -0.10
(0.06) (0.07) (0.08) (0.07) (0.07) (0.08)
Gini definition controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Constant 115.40** 99.31** 118.89** 93.42** 68.78* 95.98**
(34.24) (34.20) (34.02) (40.97) (35.82) (37.06)
Observations 109 109 108 109 109 108
R-squared 0.70 0.71 0.70 0.62 0.66 0.62
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses, *significant at 10%; **significant at5%.