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Table 3 Effect of fraction foreign born on volunteering a

From: Immigrant influx and social cohesion erosion

Panel A: All cities Inequality measure: Inequality measure: Inequality measure:
Fraction foreign born below poverty Mean to median income Fraction below poverty
Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen
  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Fraction foreign born -1.213 -1.189 -1.189 -1.234 -1.193 -1.969 -1.34 -1.294 -1.668
  [3.27]** [3.21]** [3.50]** [3.38]** [3.29]** [5.13]** [3.62]** [3.45]** [3.77]**
Second gen. (Binary) -0.014    -0.013    -0.013   
  [1.89]    [1.78]    [1.77]   
2.5 Gen--mom foreign (Binary) 0.007    0.008    0.008   
  [0.80]    [0.87]    [0.85]   
2.5 Gen--dad foreign (Binary) 0.032    0.032    0.032   
  [3.79]**    [3.81]**    [3.80]**   
Average volunteering 1989 0.193 0.186 0.273 0.197 0.187 0.284 0.212 0.2 0.264
  [3.00]** [2.79]** [3.19]** [3.14]** [2.89]** [3.62]** [3.23]** [2.94]** [3.28]**
Inequality measure -0.032 -0.021 0 0.004 -0.021 0.815 -0.53 -0.449 -0.423
  [0.60] [0.39] [0.00] [0.03] [0.13] [3.10]** [1.30] [1.06] [0.68]
Observations 181426 163394 8725 182653 164529 8764 182653 164529 8764
Panel B: Large cities Inequality measure: Inequality measure: Inequality measure:
Fraction foreign born below poverty Mean to median income Fraction below poverty
Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen
  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Fraction foreign born -0.213 -0.156 -1.438 -0.308 -0.246 -1.928 -0.297 -0.222 -1.223
  [0.46] [0.34] [2.06]* [0.67] [0.56] [2.66]** [0.56] [0.45] [1.13]
Second gen. (Binary) -0.02    -0.02    -0.02   
  [2.63]**    [2.59]**    [2.63]**   
2.5 Gen--mom foreign (Binary) 0.009    0.009    0.009   
  [0.78]    [0.78]    [0.78]   
2.5 Gen--dad foreign (Binary) 0.032    0.032    0.032   
  [3.25]**    [3.22]**    [3.23]**   
Average volunteering 1989 0.098 0.083 0.342 0.112 0.095 0.381 0.111 0.093 0.316
  [0.92] [0.73] [2.19]* [1.07] [0.87] [2.79]** [1.00] [0.79] [2.25]*
Inequality measure -0.079 -0.065 0.077 -0.247 -0.258 1.584 0.038 0.056 0.491
  [1.34] [1.08] [0.57] [0.98] [1.02] [3.98]** [0.04] [0.06] [0.19]
Observations 103937 91713 6353 103937 91713 6353 103937 91713 6353
  1. (Full Controls, Various Inequality Measures).
  2. aCoefficients are shown along with absolute values of t-statistics for the eighteen regressions of interest. All regressions use probability weights for sample inclusion and clustering on the highest relevant level for the most conservative standard errors possible in the analysis. All regressions further include controls for year and region as well as the individual and area characteristics enumerated in Table 2. Regressions are stratified by inequality measure employed, city size status, as well as whether the natives in the sample of interest are the full group, the 3rd-plus or the second generation of natives. * and ** show statistical significance at the 5% and the 1% level respectively.