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Table 4 Effect of fraction foreign born by race on volunteering a

From: Immigrant influx and social cohesion erosion

Panel A: All cities Inequality measure: Inequality measure: Inequality measure:
Frac foreign born below pov. Mean to median income Fraction below poverty
Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen
  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Fraction foreign born Asian 8.146 8.685 3.077 8.118 8.427 3.801 8.374 8.655 4.565
  [3.81]** [3.90]** [0.80] [4.11]** [4.05]** [1.07] [4.22]** [4.12]** [1.43]
Fraction foreign born hisp. -1.461 -1.531 -0.492 -1.317 -1.351 -1.251 -1.646 -1.672 -0.735
  [2.84]** [2.98]** [0.63] [2.64]** [2.72]** [1.68] [3.17]** [3.20]** [1.00]
Fraction foreign born white -4.581 -4.349 -7.598 -4.778 -4.57 -6.788 -4.651 -4.435 -7.388
  [4.09]** [3.98]** [5.66]** [4.57]** [4.48]** [4.64]** [4.39]** [4.29]** [5.57]**
Second gen. (0/1) -0.014    -0.014    -0.014   
  [2.03]*    [2.04]*    [2.03]*   
2.5 Gen-mom foreign (0/1) 0.008    0.009    0.009   
  [0.93]    [1.05]    [1.03]   
2.5 Gen--dad foreign (0/1) 0.032    0.032    0.032   
  [3.96]**    [4.15]**    [4.12]**   
Average volunteering 1989 0.186 0.177 0.274 0.191 0.181 0.264 0.209 0.199 0.255
  [3.03]** [2.79]** [3.26]** [3.22]** [2.94]** [3.40]** [3.36]** [3.06]** [3.18]**
Inequality measure -0.049 -0.043 0.013 -0.139 -0.149 0.447 -0.58 -0.562 0.11
  [0.95] [0.80] [0.11] [0.93] [0.96] [1.46] [1.43] [1.31] [0.19]
Observations 179129 161268 8654 180356 162403 8693 180356 162403 8693
Panel B: Large cities Inequality measure: Inequality measure: Inequality measure:
Frac foreign born below pov. Mean to median income Fraction below poverty
Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen Full sample 3+ gen 2nd gen
  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Fraction foreign born Asian 12.746 13.788 5.924 12.394 13.441 3.954 12.335 13.415 6.628
  [4.53]** [4.86]** [1.04] [4.55]** [4.97]** [0.59] [3.92]** [4.42]** [1.12]
Fraction foreign born hisp. 0.25 0.11 0.274 0.07 -0.078 -0.519 0.249 0.114 0.839
  [0.62] [0.25] [0.32] [0.16] [0.17] [0.49] [0.53] [0.23] [0.88]
Fraction foreign born white -7.076 -6.896 -11.245 -7.272 -7.065 -8.727 -6.743 -6.595 -10.94
  [5.38]** [4.97]** [4.32]** [5.32]** [5.09]** [2.92]** [4.98]** [4.83]** [3.82]**
Second gen. (0/1) -0.02    -0.02    -0.02   
  [3.45]**    [3.35]**    [3.54]**   
2.5 Gen-mom foreign (0/1) 0.009    0.009    0.009   
  [1.00]    [0.98]    [1.01]   
2.5 Gen--dad foreign (0/1) 0.033    0.032    0.033   
  [4.30]**    [4.19]**    [4.35]**   
Average volunteering 1989 0.126 0.111 0.398 0.149 0.132 0.411 0.138 0.121 0.365
  1.41] [1.14] [2.86]** [1.71] [1.40] [3.09]** [1.45] [1.18] [2.74]**
Inequality measure -0.13 -0.115 0.037 -0.387 -0.373 1.055 0.524 0.498 1.481
  [2.14]* [1.94] [0.40] [1.58] [1.55] [2.28]* [0.59] [0.54] [0.71]
Observations 103937 91713 6353 103937 91713 6353 103937 91713 6353
  1. aCoefficients are shown along with absolute values of t-statistics for the eighteen regressions of interest. All regressions use probability weights for sample inclusion and clustering on the highest relevant level for the most conservative standard errors possible in the analysis. All regressions further include controls for year and region as well as the individual and area characteristics enumerated in Table 2. Regressions are stratified by inequality measure, city size status, as well as whether the natives in the sample of interest are the full group, the 3rd-plus or the second generation of natives. * and ** show statistical significance at the 5%.