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Table 2 Probability of being over- and undereducated estimated with a multinomial logit model, relative risk ratios

From: Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden: incidence, wage effects and state dependence

  Men Women
Base outcome: correctly matched Over-educated Under-educated Over-educated Under-educated
Sweden Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Other Nordic countries 2.273*** 2.819*** 2.342*** 2.509***
  (0.021) (0.029) (0.019) (0.024)
EU15 2.409*** 3.469*** 2.288*** 3.595***
  (0.024) (0.039) (0.025) (0.046)
Rest of Europe 3.837*** 1.765*** 3.785*** 1.825***
  (0.026) (0.014) (0.024) (0.014)
Africa 4.597*** 1.859*** 3.528*** 2.232***
  (0.050) (0.023) (0.043) (0.029)
North America 3.086*** 3.537*** 2.761*** 3.359***
  (0.052) (0.071) (0.047) (0.070)
South America 3.459*** 1.716*** 3.355*** 1.999***
  (0.039) (0.022) (0.036) (0.024)
Asia 3.454*** 2.324*** 3.493*** 2.602***
  (0.025) (0.019) (0.025) (0.021)
Oceania 3.262*** 4.862*** 2.497*** 4.000***
  (0.135) (0.231) (0.125) (0.230)
Soviet union 2.189*** 3.964*** 3.149*** 2.409***
  (0.098) (0.229) (0.086) (0.092)
Years since migration/10a 0.758*** 0.702*** 0.777*** 0.759***
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
Age 0.641*** 0.866*** 0.785*** 0.972***
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Age squared/100 1.649*** 1.197*** 1.277*** 1.062***
  (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Number of children 0.982*** 0.982*** 1.000 0.930***
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Married 0.974*** 1.262*** 0.895*** 1.035***
  (0.002) (0.003) (0.002) (0.002)
Years of schooling 1.533*** 0.480*** 1.357*** 0.536***
  (0.001) (0.000) (0.001) (0.000)
Firm size/1000 0.954*** 1.048*** 0.958*** 1.069***
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
N 9,921,204 9,921,204 10,058,041 10,058,041
  1. Note: aYear since migration is set to zero for all workers born in Sweden.
  2. The models also include controls for sector (five categories), industry (11 categories), county (21) and year dummies. Robust standard errors in parentheses. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1.