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Table 3 Sample means for natives and immigrants in 2008

From: Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden: incidence, wage effects and state dependence

  Men Women
  Natives Western immigrants Non-Western immigrants Natives Western immigrants Non-Western immigrants
Years of schooling (std.dev) 12.3 12.5 12.2 12.9 12.8 12.4
  (2.3) (3.0) (2.8) (2.2) (2.7) (2.9)
Level of education       
Primary school less than 9 years 0.8 4.0 7.1 0.3 2.6 9.1
Primary school 9 (10) years 10.9 12.0 9.4 6.1 8.2 7.2
Upper secondary 2 years or less 30.2 28.6 24.5 25.1 26.7 21.4
Upper secondary more than 2 years 22.0 13.6 21.6 21.4 14.5 20.0
Higher education less than 3 years 15.0 13.0 14.3 16.2 14.2 13.2
Higher education 3 years or more 19.8 24.3 20.8 30.0 31.1 27.5
Post graduate education 1.4 4.4 2.2 0.8 2.6 1.5
Years of (using the mean +/− 1 st.dev):       
Undereducation 0.14 0.23 0.24 0.10 0.17 0.26
Required education 12.46 12.62 12.02 12.79 12.83 12.16
Overeducation 0.13 0.25 0.38 0.13 0.21 0.35
Years of (using the mode):       
Undereducation 0.69 0.85 0.76 0.55 0.70 0.69
Required education 12.41 12.59 11.56 12.82 12.82 11.96
Overeducation 0.62 0.80 1.08 0.59 0.72 1.08
Number of observations 1,265,344 54,591 125,621 1,165,324 59,470 133,242