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Table 9 State dependence in overeducation, men

From: Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden: incidence, wage effects and state dependence

  Random effects probit, 2002 − 2008
  Natives Western immigrants Non-Western immigrants
  III I II III I II III
Overeducation t-1 3.193*** 3.381*** 3.381*** 3.377*** 3.596*** 3.595*** 3.619***
  (0.004) (0.012) (0.012) (0.021) (0.010) (0.010) (0.018)
Job change 0.091*** 0.033** 0.032** 0.108*** −0.088*** −0.089*** 0.002
  (0.004) (0.016) (0.016) (0.023) (0.013) (0.013) (0.019)
Region of birth - - Yes Yes - Yes Yes
Occupation Yes - - Yes - - Yes
Number of observations 4,800,915 194,683 292,424
Number of individuals 708,673 28,759 43,664
lnsig2u −0.303*** −13.737*** −13.739*** −0.351*** −14.209*** −14.210*** −0.342***
  (0.010) (3.870) (3.874) (0.054) (3.650) (3.659) (0.044)
  Random effects probit, 2002–2008 – Wooldridge estimator with Mundlak correction
  Natives Western immigrants Non-Western immigrants
  III I II III I II III
Overeducation t-1 2.130*** 2.604*** 2.603*** 2.227*** 2.760*** 2.761*** 2.391***
  (0.005) (0.026) (0.026) (0.029) (0.023) (0.023) (0.024)
Overeducation t = 0 2.703*** 1.422*** 1.422*** 2.884*** 1.577*** 1.571*** 2.699***
  (0.013) (0.052) (0.052) (0.074) (0.052) (0.051) (0.059)
Job change 0.110*** 0.046** 0.045** 0.119*** −0.086*** −0.087*** −0.010
  (0.005) (0.019) (0.019) (0.028) (0.015) (0.015) (0.022)
Region of birth - - Yes Yes - Yes Yes
Occupation Yes - - Yes - - Yes
Means over time Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Number of observations 4,800,915 194,942 293,021
Number of individuals 708,673 28,762 43,670
lnsig2u 0.7092 −0.722*** −0.721*** 0.984*** 0.3323 −0.704*** 0.6855
  (0.0016) (0.069) (0.069) (0.041) (0.0139) (0.063) (0.0074)
  1. Note: The random effects probit models also include controls for: age, age squared, number of children, marriage, years of schooling and years since migration for immigrants, sector (five categories), county (21 categories), birth region for immigrants (six categories), and occupation (nine categories).
  2. The random effects probit models using the Wooldridge estimator and Mundlak corrections include means over time for age, age squared, number of children, years of schooling and years since migration. Standard errors in parentheses. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1.