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Table 1 Static flow model estimates for 12 EU-15 destination countries and 9 source cohorts

From: EU enlargement and the race to the bottom of welfare states

Explanatory variables Dependent variable: Δm ij,t  = annual change in the diaspora ratio
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Destination country variables D j,t-1
Annual nominal net wage in 10,000 Euro in j 1.792*** (0.347) 1.967*** (0.487) 1.992*** (0.563) 2.143*** (0.576) 4.508** (1.952)
Unemployment rate in % in j -0.040 (0.043) -0.072 (0.056) -0.084 (0.082) -0.082 (0.101) -0.329*** (0.119)
Population in destination country j in mio. persons 0.017** (0.008) 0.003 (0.015) 0.006 (0.015) 0.003 (0.013) 0.029 (0.025)
Southern European country (0/1) 2.762*** (0.399) 3.317*** (0.681) 3.535*** (0.935) 3.948*** (0.939) 7.926*** (1.936)
Regime dummy (restricted freedom of m.) in j (0/1) 0.822 (0.729) 0.934 (0.782) 0.969 (0.789) 0.873 (1.146) -10.436 (10.500)
Public social expenditures/GDP in j 2.322 (5.179) 4.988 (5.691) 9.493** (4.410) 12.829*** (4.855) 5.897 (10.227)
Source-destination (network) effects N ij,t-1
Diaspora stock in j in mio. persons   1.171 (0.949) 0.848 (1.047) 0.986 (0.920) 1.132 (3.055)
Education level (ISCED) in age-specific diaspora    0.660 (1.031) 1.120 (0.955) 3.890 (2.918)
Proportion of females in age-specific diaspora    -4.303* (2.543) -5.050* (2.925 -2.731 (3.534)
Proportion of employed in age-specific diaspora    0.318 (2.571) 0.557 (2.645) -2.855 (3.599)
Source specific factors S i,t-1      
Education level (ISCED) in source cohort    3.579 (3.416) 1.001 (7.327) -4.271 (5.739)
Proportion of employed in source cohort    -5.603 (8.846) -19.142* (10.111) -17.305** (8.650)
Interaction of push-pull factors and the migration regime I ij,t-1 a
Annual nominal net wage × regime dummy      -3.479* (2.004)
Unemployment rate × regime dummy      0.438** (0.194)
Public social expenditures/GDP x regime dummy      -5.147 (10.730)
Diaspora stock in j in mio. persons × regime dummy      -1.996 (4.239)
Proportion of employed in source × regime dummy      -5.890 (16.186)
Time dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Age and source dummies Yes Yes Yes No No
Source cohort dummies No No No Yes Yes
Constant included Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
R-squared 0.286 0.298 0.315 0.338 0.474
Number of observations 432 432 432 432 432
  1. *p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. Standard errors that are clustered by destination country and time periods are shown in parentheses. I use the STATA routine by Cameron et al. ([2011]) to control for two-way clustered error terms. In all regressions, time dummies and a constant are included. aFurther variables are included: see the Additional file 1 for a table with all covariates. All explanatory variables are lagged by one year except for the migration regime dummy.