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Table 3 Comparison of the economic effects on migration flows in the EU-15

From: EU enlargement and the race to the bottom of welfare states

Explanatory variable Δ of 1 standard dev. from mean of the expl. var. Coefficients: Direct effect/interaction effect Δ diaspora ratio: no restriction Δ diaspora ratio: with restriction Differential effect of restriction
Annual nominal net wage in 10,000 Euro in destination 0.614 (6140 Euro) (4) 2.143***/none (4) 1.316 - -
(5) 4.508**/-3.479* (5) 2.768 (5) 0.632 (5) 2.136
(6) 5.108***/-4.129** (6) 3.136 (6) 0.601 (6) 2.537
(7) 4.391*/-3.200 (7) 2.696 (7) 0.731 (7) 1.965
Unemployment rate in the destination country 2.996 (2.996%-points) (4) -0.082/none (4) -0.246 - -
(5) -0.329***/0.438** (5) -0.986 (5) 0.327 (5) -1.313
(6) -0.401***/0.505*** (6) -1.201 (6) 0.312 (6) -1.513
(7) -0.420***/0.537*** (7) -1.258 (7) 0.351 (7) -1.609
Proportion of employed in the source cohort 0.056 (5.6%-points) (4) -19.142*/none (4) -1.072 - -
(5) -17.305**/-5.890 (5) -0.969 (5) -1.299 (5) 0.330
(6) -18.296**/-4.262 (6) -1.025 (6) -1.263 (6) 0.238
(7) -18.679**/-3.813 (7) -1.046 (7) -1.260 (7) 0.214
Social expenditures/GDP in the destination country 0.033 (3.3%-points) (4) 12.829***/none (4) 0.423 - -
(5) 5.897/-5.147 (5) 0.195 (5) 0.025 (5) 0.170
Net replacement rate in % in the destination country 0.181 (18.1%-points) (6) 2.770/-2.668 (6) 0.501 (6) -0.018 (6) 0.519
Annual replacement income in 10,000 Euro in destination 0.580 (5800 Euro) (7) 1.546/-1.925 (7) 0.897 (7) -0.220 (7) 1.117
  1. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.