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Table 5 Results on the willingness to migrate illegally: the role of the migration costs

From: “Barcelona or die”: understanding illegal migration from Senegal

  Marginal effects  
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Log pirogue price (illegal) -1.059**    -0.595  
  (2.53)    (1.55)  
Log embassy price (illegal)   -0.345***   -0.299**  
   (3.41)   (2.33)  
Log visa price (legal)    0.036 0.038  
    (0.89) (0.68)  
Log migration prices      -0.321***
      (8.83)
Wage per capita 0.024 0.013 0.030 0.029 0.038
  (0.56) (0.31) (0.72) 0.65 (0.84)
Education level      
Secondary level -0.095 -0.101 -0.131** -0.083 -0.067
  (1.23) (1.53) (1.99) (1.08) (0.89)
University level -0.314*** -0.327*** -0.346*** -0.310*** -0.322***
  (3.57) (4.99) (5.26) (3.46) (4.48)
Koranic school -0.144* -0.093 -0.121 -0.130 -0.047
  (1.70) (1.19) (1.54) (1.50) (0.53)
Male 0.125 0.121 0.144* 0.115 0.102
  (1.21) (1.40) (1.75) (1.08) (1.06)
Age 0.032 0.043 0.039 0.044 0.015
  (0.95) (1.35) (1.22) (1.26) (0.47)
Age square -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001
  (1.33) (1.62) (1.51) (1.59) (1.01)
Married -0.262*** -0.245*** -0.257*** -0.258*** -0.185**
  (3.47) (3.81) (3.91) (3.40) (2.49)
Child is male -0.201** -0.101 -0.148 -0.189* -0.125
  (1.96) (1.15) (1.57) (1.90) (1.36)
Child is female -0.087 -0.118 -0.090 -0.085 -0.068
  (0.77) (1.17) (0.84) (0.77) (0.67)
Adult is male -0.157* -0.057 -0.093 -0.147 -0.015
  (1.74) (0.76) (1.19) (1.61) (0.19)
Ault is female 0.128 0.115 0.112 0.131 0.092
  (1.30) (1.42) (1.32) (1.34) (1.16)
Home owner -0.093 -0.063 -0.095 -0.083 -0.040
  (1.34) (1.04) (1.49) (1.19) (0.59)
Mouride 0.059 0.129** 0.103 0.063 0.138**
  (0.83) (2.08) (1.62) (0.88) (1.98)
Observations 290 343 327 290 343
  1. Notes: The dependent variable equals one if the individual is willing to migrate illegally and zero if he is willing to migrate only legally. The reference category of the variable education level is low education level. Robust z-statistics in parenthesis: *significant at 10%; **significant at 5%; ***significant at 1%. All estimations include ethnic and region dummies.