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Table 6 List of variables and sources

From: Do climate variations explain bilateral migration? A gravity model analysis

Variable Definition Source
wtemp Population‐weighted average annual temperature in degrees Celsius. Constant 1990 population weights Dell et al. (2008).
wpre Population‐weighted average annual precipitation in millimeters. Constant 1990 population weights Dell et al. (2008).
Immigrant inflow Inflow of population from sending country i into host country j Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2014): OECD International Migration Database. Eurostat (2014): Immigration.
GDP per capita origin PPP-adjusted GDP per capita in sending country at current US$ World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators Database.
GDP per capita destination PPP-adjusted GDP per capita in host country at current US$ World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators Database.
Population Population in the sending country World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators Database.
Demographic pressure Percentage or young population as a share of working age population in the sending country World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators Database.
Unemployment rate destination Unemployment rate in the country of destination, total (share of total labor force) World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators Database.
Trade to GDP Sum of exports and imports of goods and services measured as a share of the sending country’s gross domestic product World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators Database.
Share of agricultural land Share of sending country i’s land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures World Bank (2014): World Development Indicators Database.
EU membership Dummy variable equals 1 if the country of origin is a member of the European Union European Union (2014): EU member countries.
State fragility index Ordinally scaled (0–25) measure of sending country i’s state fragility Center for Systemic Peace (2014): State Fragility Index.