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Table 2 Tests of difference in means for subsamples

From: Remittances, school quality, and household education expenditures in Nepal

  Remit (n = 3178) Noremit (n = 2810) Difference Standard error
Education spending 14.22 19.53 −5.314*** −1.528
Remittance income 104.39    
SLC pass rate 57.96 60.88 −2.929*** −0.397
Number remitters 1.62    
Urban 0.279 0.402 −0.123*** −0.0121
Share ages 4-7 0.0831 0.0767 0.00642* −0.00323
Share ages 8-15 0.193 0.183 0.01 −0.00515
Share ages 16-64 0.576 0.61 −0.0341*** −0.00651
Share elderly 0.0776 0.0664 0.0113* −0.00461
Farm income 1.916 2.935 −1.019 −1.236
Business income 60.62 80.52 −19.89 −19.54
Wage income 36.52 75.90 −39.37*** −4.10
Married couples 0.77 1.082 −0.312*** −0.0175
Household production 5.581 5.086 0.495** −0.19
  External (n = 1718) Internal (n = 1989) Difference Standard Error
Education spending 14.69 14.07 0.625 −1.029
Remittance income 129.9 54.61 75.26** −28.05
SLC pass rate 57.8 57.82 −0.0191 −0.471
Number remitters 1.732 1.817 −0.0853* −0.0356
Urban 0.274 0.265 0.00862 −0.0146
Share ages 4-7 0.0921 0.0771 0.0150*** −0.0043
Share ages 8-15 0.205 0.182 0.0227*** −0.00675
Share ages 16-64 0.557 0.586 −0.0290*** −0.00842
Share elderly 0.0697 0.0844 −0.0146* −0.00601
Farm income 2.984 1.436 1.548 −2.239
Business income 36.17 74.59 −38.42 −28.95
Wage income 30.31 39.35 −9.04** −3.06
Married couples 0.692 0.814 −0.123*** −0.0239
Household production 5.487 5.771 −0.285 −0.25
  Noremit (n = 2810) Internal (n = 1989) Difference Standard Error
Education spending 19.53 14.07 5.460** −1.897
Remittance income     
SLC pass rate 60.88 57.82 3.062*** −0.451
Number remitters 0 1.817 −1.817*** −0.0209
Urban 0.402 0.265 0.137*** −0.0138
Share ages 4-7 0.0767 0.0771 −0.000401 −0.00353
Share ages 8-15 0.183 0.182 0.00112 −0.0057
Share ages 16-64 0.61 0.586 0.0238** −0.00735
Share elderly 0.0664 0.0844 −0.0180*** −0.00534
Farm income 2.935 1.436 1.499 −1.304
Business income 80.52 74.59 5.926 −24.54
Wage income 75.89 39.35 36.54*** −5.02
Married couples 1.082 0.814 0.268*** −0.0195
Household production 5.086 5.771 −0.685** −0.223
  Noremit (n = 2810) External (n = 1718) Difference Standard Error
Education spending 19.53 14.69 4.835* −2.035
Remittance income     
SLC pass rate 60.88 57.8 3.081*** −0.482
Number remitters 0 1.732 −1.732*** −0.0198
Urban 0.402 0.274 0.129*** −0.0145
Share ages 4-7 0.0767 0.0921 −0.0154*** −0.00383
Share ages 8-15 0.183 0.205 −0.0216*** −0.00608
Share ages 16-64 0.61 0.557 0.0528*** −0.00755
Share elderly 0.0664 0.0697 −0.00339 −0.00511
Farm income 2.935 2.984 −0.0487 −1.613
Business income 80.52 36.17 44.35*** −11.8
Wage income 75.89 30.31 45.58*** −53.284
Married couples 1.082 0.692 0.391*** −0.0203
Household production 5.086 5.487 −0.4 −0.225
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001