Skip to main content

Table 3 Education spending as a function of remittance income and school quality

From: Remittances, school quality, and household education expenditures in Nepal

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Variables OLS IV OLS IV OLS IV
Remittance income 0.002 0.033 0.002 0.095*** −0.023 −0.217
  (1.52) (1.46) (1.62) (3.72) (−1.62) (−1.47)
SLC pass rate*      0.0005* 0.004**
Remittance      (1.68) (1.99)
SLC pass rate    0.307*** 0.118** 0.245*** −0.230
    (7.78) (2.51) (6.01) (−1.11)
Number remitter 1.180** 10.316* 1.229** −6.462 1.134** 16.302
  (2.27) (1.83) (2.37) (−1.20) (2.31) (1.11)
Urban household 18.668*** 17.744*** 15.699*** 10.345*** 15.325*** 13.083***
  (12.62) (8.50) (12.53) (6.15) (12.36) (4.91)
Share 4 to 7 24.555*** 31.943*** 23.785*** 22.401*** 24.031*** 35.804***
  (7.38) (5.81) (7.22) (3.68) (7.23) (2.75)
Share 8 to 15 33.021*** 36.987*** 32.399*** 31.734*** 32.922*** 47.420***
  (13.84) (7.20) (13.63) (5.24) (13.67) (3.53)
Share 16 to 64 25.589*** 27.528*** 23.300*** 20.027*** 23.405*** 29.641***
  (7.41) (6.09) (7.09) (4.21) (7.08) (3.22)
Share elderly 10.937*** 9.324** 8.891*** 15.279*** 9.724*** 17.657**
  (4.72) (2.27) (3.85) (3.00) (4.15) (2.13)
Farm income −0.003 0.002 −0.003 0.000 −0.003 −0.000
  (−0.84) (0.48) (−0.80) (0.07) (−0.76) (−0.09)
Enterprise income 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
  (0.83) (0.82) (0.98) (1.55) (0.99) (0.92)
Wage income 0.034*** 0.033*** 0.031*** 0.034*** 0.031*** 0.042***
  (3.84) (3.12) (3.52) (3.40) (3.56) (2.67)
Married couples 1.053 0.548 1.278* 1.765* 1.332* 2.326
  (1.53) (0.60) (1.88) (1.72) (1.92) (1.55)
Home production −0.165*** −0.259*** −0.150*** −0.044 −0.141*** −0.181
  (−3.58) (−3.58) (−3.48) (−0.54) (−3.29) (−1.30)
Constant −18.245*** −37.442*** −33.764*** −17.168 −30.846*** −40.488*
  (−6.08) (−3.41) (−7.64) (−1.57) (−7.42) (−1.90)
Observations 3,178 3,178 3,178 3,178 3,178 3,178
Hansen’s J   3.043   7.773   2.463
p-value   0.218   0.0205   0.117
First stage F       
 Remittance income   4.552   5.920   5.920
 Number remitter   6.085   6.697   6.697
 SLC*Remittance       6.828
  1. Robust t-statistics in parentheses
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1