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Table 5 Education spending as a function of remittance income and school quality, internal vs. external remittance

From: Remittances, school quality, and household education expenditures in Nepal

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Variables OLS IV OLS IV
Internal remittance −0.119* −0.619***   
  (−1.95) (−3.04)   
SLC pass rate* 0.003** 0.013***   
Internal remittance (1.97) (2.99)   
External remittance    0.002 0.139
    (0.09) (0.88)
SLC pass rate*    0.0001 0.00005
External remittance    (0.45) (0.03)
SLC pass rate 0.214*** −0.231 0.292*** 0.005
  (3.81) (−1.54) (5.27) (0.03)
Number remitter 1.466** 17.838*** 1.018 −8.200
  (2.51) (2.83) (1.35) (−0.99)
Urban household 15.243*** 11.444*** 16.691*** 9.016*
  (9.75) (4.92) (8.53) (1.69)
Share 4 to 7 27.072*** 35.276*** 22.444*** 26.393**
  (5.97) (3.97) (5.37) (2.16)
Share 8 to 15 32.390*** 43.753*** 33.341*** 33.816***
  (11.21) (5.07) (9.95) (3.21)
Share 16 to 64 23.257*** 23.181*** 25.114*** 19.994*
  (5.65) (3.13) (4.71) (1.95)
Share elderly 9.658*** 11.659 10.309*** 21.662**
  (3.45) (1.51) (2.97) (1.99)
Farm income −0.005 −0.007 0.002 0.006
  (−1.01) (−0.95) (0.51) (0.88)
Enterprise income 0.000 0.001 0.009** 0.004
  (0.71) (0.87) (1.97) (0.70)
Wage income 0.000** 0.000*** 0.000** 0.016
  (2.07) (2.70) (2.24) (0.92)
Married couples 1.752* 4.904*** 1.032 1.504
  (1.93) (2.77) (1.06) (0.67)
Home production −0.126** −0.244* −0.177*** 0.014
  (−2.39) (−1.93) (−2.65) (0.07)
Constant −30.310*** −42.524*** −34.292*** −16.082
  (−5.41) (−2.97) (−5.21) (−1.11)
Observations 1,989 1,989 1,718 1,718
Hansen’s J   0.216   0.0101
p-value   0.642   0.920
First stage F     
 Remittance income   0.302   2.153
 Number remitter   1.054   2.326
 SLC*Remittance   7.056   4.339
  1. Robust t-statistics in parentheses
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1