Skip to main content

Table 7 Education spending as a function of remittance income and school quality

From: Remittances, school quality, and household education expenditures in Nepal

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Variables OLS IV OLS IV OLS IV
Remittance income 0.001 0.048 0.001 0.127*** −0.020 −0.450***
  (1.33) (1.13) (1.42) (2.60) (−1.49) (−2.76)
SLC pass rate*      0.0004 0.009***
Remittance      (1.54) (3.30)
SLC pass rate    0.406*** 0.226*** 0.381*** −0.093
    (6.23) (4.29) (5.70) (−0.81)
Number remitter 0.902* 2.809 1.069** −19.902*** 0.840* −3.070
  (1.89) (0.59) (2.23) (−3.52) (1.87) (−0.40)
Urban household 20.350*** 20.437*** 15.611*** 9.040*** 15.510*** 13.659***
  (9.99) (7.46) (9.81) (4.39) (9.74) (4.77)
Share 4 to 7 28.213*** 32.199*** 27.438*** 16.064*** 27.514*** 28.912***
  (6.11) (6.29) (6.00) (2.88) (6.01) (3.02)
Share 8 to 15 47.142*** 48.835*** 46.433*** 32.191*** 46.689*** 54.098***
  (6.08) (6.33) (6.07) (4.46) (6.11) (4.71)
Share 16 to 64 35.611*** 36.803*** 32.240*** 22.153*** 32.312*** 34.391***
  (7.08) (6.98) (6.98) (4.47) (7.00) (4.28)
Share elderly 21.080*** 20.452*** 17.932*** 18.389*** 18.372*** 28.238***
  (4.72) (4.20) (4.34) (3.10) (4.46) (3.39)
Farm income −0.014 −0.010 −0.012 −0.004 −0.012 −0.014
  (−1.43) (−1.17) (−1.42) (−0.41) (−1.41) (−1.31)
Enterprise income 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.008
  (1.31) (1.21) (1.33) (1.63) (1.33) (1.45)
Wage income 0.023** 0.022** 0.019** 0.021** 0.020** 0.023**
  (2.54) (2.57) (2.19) (2.41) (2.20) (2.35)
Married couples 8.647 10.540** 8.776 0.457 8.852 12.208**
  (1.60) (2.02) (1.62) (0.10) (1.64) (2.02)
Home production −0.271*** −0.348*** −0.213** 0.006 −0.212** −0.212*
  (−2.83) (−3.35) (−2.36) (0.07) (−2.35) (−1.71)
Constant −32.949*** −39.680*** −53.410*** −13.469 −52.171*** −31.640**
  (−3.65) (−3.66) (−4.53) (−1.35) (−4.41) (−2.44)
Observations 5,988 5,988 5,988 5,988 5,988 5,988
Hansen’s J   0.927   7.954   0.799
p-value   0.629   0.0187   0.371
First stage F:       
 Remittance income   7.751   6.741   6.741
 Number remitter   16.54   20.14   20.14
 SLC*Remittance       7.028
  1. Robust t-statistics in parentheses
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1