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Table 1 Individual and school characteristics by immigrant’s definition

From: Better migrants, better PISA results: Findings from a natural experiment

  First-generation Second-generation Nativesa Allb
  Mean Std. error Mean Std. error Mean Std. error  
Year 2000        
Individual characteristics        
Reading score 426.21 3.95 462.63 3.70 517.43 1.16 503.27
Female 0.45 0.02 0.52 0.02 0.50 0.01 0.49
Age 16.06 0.03 15.70 0.03 15.70 0.01 15.74
Parents’ education: tertiaryc 0.08 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.09
Parents’ education: compulsory 0.20 0.02 0.20 0.02 0.05 0.003 0.08
Foreign language at home 0.81 0.02 0.65 0.02 0.05 0.003 0.18
Socio-economic index 39.1 0.6 43.33 0.61 50.53 0.21 48.72
Less than 100 books at home 0.81 0.02 0.67 0.02 0.45 0.01 0.51
Latin Switzerland 0.29 0.02 0.28 0.02 0.20 0.005 0.21
Country of origin: Germany, France, Austria, Belgium 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.01 - -  
Country of origin: Italy, Spain, Portugal 0.24 0.01 0.45 0.01 - -  
Country of origin: Albania, Kosovo, Ex Yugoslavia 0.51 0.01 0.15 0.01 - -  
Country of origin: Turkey 0.08 0.02 0.11 0.02 - -  
Country of origin: Rest 0.14 0.01 0.23 0.02 - -  
School characteristics        
Proportion of foreign language speakers 0.28 0.01 0.28 0.01 0.16 0.002 0.18
Number of students in school 514.61 15.04 536.72 17.06 456.15 4.75 469.34
Public 0.99 0.005 0.97 0.007 0.97 0.002 0.97
N 649   604   5409   6662
Year 2009        
Individual characteristics        
Reading score 466.21 2.84 475.33 1.9 519.83 0.79 509.53
Female 0.53 0.02 0.51 0.01 0.51 0.005 0.51
Age 15.97 0.02 15.73 0.02 15.74 0.01 15.76
Parents’ education: tertiary 0.22 0.01 0.19 0.01 0.28 0.004 0.26
Parents’ education: compulsory 0.10 0.01 0.11 0.01 0.02 0.001 0.03
Foreign language at home 0.66 0.01 0.58 0.01 0.03 0.002 0.16
Socio-economic index 44.38 0.54 43.76 0.34 53.04 0.15 51.08
Less than 100 books at home 0.75 0.01 0.76 0.01 0.52 0.01 0.65
Latin Switzerland 0.37 0.01 0.45 0.01 0.23 0.004 0.30
Country of origin: Germany, France, Austria, Belgium 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.02 - -  
Country of origin: Italy, Spain, Portugal 0.20 0.01 0.30 0.01 - -  
Country of origin: Albania, Kosovo, Ex Yugoslavia 0.34 0.01 0.32 0.01 - -  
Country of origin: Turkey 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.02 - -  
Country of origin: Rest 0.33 0.01 0.28 0.01 - -  
School characteristics        
Proportion of foreign language speakers 0.2 0.003 0.2 0.003 0.13 0.001 0.14
Number of students in school 529.56 11.24 563.35 7.88 497.7 3.43 509.21
Public 0.99 0.003 0.99 0.002 0.99 0.001 0.99
N 1095   2031   10862   13988
  1. aNatives include all children who are neither first-generation nor second-generation immigrants
  2. bAll reports the means of the whole sample
  3. cParents education tertiary (compulsory) is a dummy variable taking the value 1 if both parents have a tertiary (only compulsory school) degree