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Table 4 Oaxaca decomposition of the score gap between 2000 and 2009 for first-generation immigrants including controls for school characteristics

From: Better migrants, better PISA results: Findings from a natural experiment

(A) Regression OLS 2009 Regression OLS 2000
  Coefficient Std. errore Coefficient Std. error
Female 30.93 2.04a 9.93 6.45
Age −24.15 1.57a −10.73 5.13b
SEI 1.06 0.08a 0.64 0.27b
Parents ‘education: tertiaryc 2.62 2.96 20.20 15.20
Parents’ education: compulsory 2.32 3.43 −31.19 8.59a
Family structured: single −8.62 3.36b −7.92 11.12
Family Structure: mixed −31.15 10.88a 10.43 15.42
Siblings (yes) −9.31 3.05a −46.93 11.97a
Less than 100 books at home −34.60 2.91a −34.26 9.58a
Foreign language at home 10.03 2.72a −0.05 9.20
Age at immigration −0.65 0.23b −3.24 0.88a
Latin Switzerland −2.24 2.59 −9.43 8.64
Country of originf: Germany, France, Austria, Belgium 44.26 3.96a 10.63 20.44
Country of origin: Italy, Spain, Portugal −2.89 3.39 −2.87 12.19
Country of origin: Albania, Kosovo, Ex Yugoslavia −12.68 3.03a −25.07 11.31a
Country of origin: Turkey 12.60 7.00+ −30.05 14.79b
Public −64.49 11.87a −27.55 27.17
School size 0.04 0.003a 0.02 0.01+
Proportion of foreign language speakers 20–40% −28.41 2.35a −35.88 7.96a
Proportion of foreign language speakers >40% −61.17 4.58a −88.80 9.51a
Community sizeg: village −2.58 4.76 −42.16 14.78a
Community size: small town −7.43 3.07* −13.32 9.77
Community size: town −9.83 3.19a 11.30 10.17
Constant 881.51 29.21a 744.72 85.94a
R2 0.41   0.38  
N 1095   649  
(B) Decomposition     
Total gap 40 100%   
Explained 30 75%   
Unexplained 10 25%   
  1. asignificant at 1% level
  2. bsignificant at 5% level, +significant at 10% level
  3. cReference: Both parents have secondary level education
  4. dReference: Nuclear
  5. eAll standard errors account for errors’ correlations at the school level
  6. fReference: Other
  7. gReference: City