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Table 2 Log odds of immigrating to Spain by foreigners and emigrating from Spain by Spaniards born in Spain

From: Spain: from massive immigration to vast emigration?

  Entry of foreigners Exit of Spaniards born in Spain
  Fixed effects CCE Fixed effects CCE
Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
U(CCAA)–U(country) −0.02967 −0.02920 −0.01029 −0.00951 0.03624 0.03661 0.02953 0.04394
  (0.00001)** (0.00001)** (0.00001)** (0.00001)** (0.00285)** (0.00201)** (0.00331)** (0.00175)**
Time dummies Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Country dummies Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Region dummies Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Pair country/region dummies No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Auxiliary regressors No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Constant −8.184 −9.904 −0.095 −2.042 −5.737 −5.181 −6.245 −0.84414
  (0.00025)** (0.00011)** (0.00171)** (0.00022)** (0.04315)** (0.01081)** (0.38672)** (0.10115)**
R-squared 0.88 0.71 0.89 0.78 0.76 0.19 0.79 0.30
Observations 6938 6938 6938 6938 2267 2267 2267 2267
  1. Source: In columns 1 to 4, the dependent variable is the logarithm of entries from Estadística de Variaciones Residenciales by country of birth and region of destination in a particular year (1998–2012) over the population in the country of birth in the corresponding year (WEO) in thousands. In columns 5 to 8, the dependent variable is the logarithm of exits from Estadística de Variaciones Residenciales by region of residence and country of destination (2002–2012) over the population in the region of residence (padron) in thousands. Unemployment rates of regions in Spain are from the labour force survey and unemployment in origin countries at the WEO. The auxiliary regressors are the cross country average of all dependent and independent variables. Observations are weighted by the population of the origin country. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01