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Table 5 Detailed summary statistics for sole- and multiple-sibling migrants

From: The remittance behaviour of Kenyan sibling migrants

Variables All sibling migrants Sole migrants only Multiple migrants only t test/z-score Positive remitters only
=1 if multiple-sibling migrant 0.76 (0.42)     0.74 (0.44)
=1 if aged 15 to 25; =0 otherwise 0.3 (0.46) 0.37 (0.48) 0.27 (0.45) 3.05*** 0.19 (0.39)
=1 if aged 26 to 35; =0 otherwise 0.45 (0.5) 0.42 (0.49) 0.46 (0.5) −1.13 0.53 (0.50)
=1 if aged 26 to 45; =0 otherwise 0.17 (0.38) 0.12 (0.33) 0.19 (0.39) −2.32** 0.21 (0.41)
=1 if aged 46+; =0 otherwise 0.08 (0.28) 0.09 (0.28) 0.08 (0.28) 0.15 0.08 (0.27)
χ 2 test for age dummies     11.66***  
 Birth rank 2.21 (1.40) 1.40 (0.68) 2.45 (1.47) −15.99*** 1.94 (1.21)
  =1 if male; =0 otherwise 0.57 (0.5) 0.61 (0.49) 0.55 (0.5) 1.49* 0.60 (0.49)
  =1 if university education; =0 otherwise 0.18 (0.38) 0.15 (0.36) 0.18 (0.39) −1.20 0.22 (0.41)
  =1 if secondary education; =0 otherwise 0.63 (0.48) 0.61 (0.49) 0.64 (0.48) −0.61 0.62 (0.49)
  =1 if primary education; =0 otherwise 0.19 (0.39) 0.23 (0.42) 0.18 (0.38) 1.92** 0.16 (0.37)
χ 2 test for education dummies     4.27  
 =1 if employed; =0 otherwise 0.6 (0.49) 0.54 (0.5) 0.62 (0.49) −2.24** 0.84 (0.37)
 =1 if self-employed; =0 otherwise 0.1 (0.3) 0.09 (0.28) 0.1 (0.3) −0.76 0.10 (0.29)
 =1 if unemployed/student; =0 otherwise 0.30 (0.46) 0.37 (0.48) 0.28 (0.45) 2.90*** 0.07 (0.25)
χ 2 test for employment dummies     15.73***  
 =1 if married; =0 otherwise 0.46 (0.5) 0.39 (0.49) 0.48 (0.5) −2.50** 0.55 (0.50)
 =1 if lives with spouse and/or children; =0 otherwise 0.39 (0.49) 0.3 (0.46) 0.42 (0.49) −3.35*** 0.45 (0.50)
 =1 if lives with relatives and/or friends; =0 otherwise 0.2 (0.4) 0.17 (0.37) 0.21 (0.41) −1.44* 0.12 (0.32)
 =1 if lives alone; =0 otherwise 0.41 (0.49) 0.53 (0.5) 0.38 (0.48) 4.51*** 0.43 (0.50)
χ 2 test for living situation dummies     20.21***  
 Migration length spline 1 3.63 (1.54) 3.13 (1.58) 3.78 (1.5) −6.02*** 3.88 (1.44)
 Migration length spline 2 2.76 (5.88) 1.25 (3.35) 3.22 (6.39) −4.74*** 2.65 (5.09)
  =1 receives transfers from the household of origin; =0 otherwise 0.17 (038) 0.28 (0.45) 0.14 (0.34) 5.42*** 0.06 (0.24)
  =1 if located in external destination; =0 otherwise 0.39 (0.49) 0.49 (0.5) 0.35 (0.48) 4.08*** 0.41 (0.49)
  =1 if head aged 25 to 44; =0 otherwise 0.08 (0.27) 0.15 (0.36) 0.06 (0.23) 5.02*** 0.05 (0.23)
  =1 if head aged 45 to 54; =0 otherwise 0.25 (0.44) 0.36 (0.48) 0.22 (0.41) 4.60*** 0.22 (0.41)
  =1 if head aged 55 to 65; =0 otherwise 0.29 (0.46) 0.25 (0.44) 0.31 (0.46) −1.62* 0.31 (0.46)
  =1 if head aged 66 or more; =0 otherwise 0.37 (0.48) 0.23 (0.42) 0.42 (0.49) −5.41*** 0.42(0.49)
χ 2 test for head age dummies     57.96***  
 =1 if head has university education; =0 otherwise 0.1 (0.29) 0.1 (0.3) 0.09 (0.29) 0.127 0.07 (0.26)
 =1 if head has secondary education; =0 otherwise 0.39 (0.49) 0.34 (0.47) 0.4 (0.49) −1.87** 0.38 (0.49)
 =1 if head has primary education; =0 otherwise 0.52 (0.5) 0.56 (0.5) 0.5 (0.5) 1.75** 0.55 (0.50)
χ 2 test for education dummies     3.64  
 =1 if head is employed; =0 otherwise 0.18 (0.38) 0.28 (0.45) 0.15 (0.36) 4.99*** 0.14 (0.35)
 =1 if head is self-employed; =0 otherwise 0.38 (0.49) 0.42 (0.49) 0.37 (0.48) 1.2 0.41 (0.49)
 =1 if head is unemployed; =0 otherwise 0.15 (0.35) 0.14 (0.35) 0.15 (0.35) −0.08 0.13 (0.33)
 =1 if head is retired; =0 otherwise 0.29 (0.45) 0.16 (0.36) 0.33 (0.47) −5.48*** 0.32 (0.47)
χ 2 test for employment dummies     41.67***  
 Proportion of elderly people 0.21 (0.27) 0.09 (0.14) 0.25 (0.29) −8.35*** 0.22 (0.25)
  =1 if the household owns land/house; =0 otherwise 0.88 (0.32) 0.86 (0.34) 0.89 (0.31) −1.19 0.91 (0.28)
  =1 if head is male; =0 otherwise 0.69 (0.46) 0.65 (0.48) 0.7 (0.46) −1.61* 0.67 (0.47)
 Proportion of children 0.06 (0.12) 0.08 (0.13) 0.06 (0.11) 2.15** 0.07 (0.12)
 Household size 4.48 (2.24) 5.22 (2.11) 4.25 (2.23) 6.18*** 4.70 (2.11)
  =1 if non-sibling migrant present; =0 otherwise 0.13 (0.33) 0.08 (0.27) 0.14 (0.35) −2.47** 0.09 (0.28)
  =1 if the household in urban location; =0 otherwise 0.42 (0.49) 0.47 (0.5) 0.4 (0.49) 1.80** 0.35 (0.48)
N 1092 257 835   542
  1. Notes to the table: (i) The fifth column reports the t test/z-scores for tests for mean/proportion differences between sole- and multiple-sibling migrants. (ii) Standard deviations are reported in parentheses. (iii) *, **, and *** represent the statistical significance of the differences for the 10, 5, and 1 % significance levels, respectively. (iv) The χ 2 tests are testing for differences between sole- and multiple-sibling migrants for categorical variables