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Table 10 Annual wages and immigration, including Southern workers

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   Overall   By race
   1940 1950   1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White   Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern −0.0649 −0.172 −0.567* 0.302 Prop. Southern black −0.653 0.788 −1.046 0.846*
   (0.319) (0.364) (0.306) (0.257)   (0.879) (0.809) (0.963) (0.511)
  Observations 6849 109,298 3501 41,794 Prop. Southern white 0.274 −0.751*** −0.235 −0.314*
  Clusters 47 80 33 80   (0.490) (0.286) (0.447) (0.162)
       Observations 6849 109,298 3501 41,794
       Clusters 47 80 33 80
(2) Prop. Southern −0.441* 0.361 −0.469* 0.293 Prop. Southern black −3.777*** 1.780*** −0.652 0.788
   (0.228) (0.245) (0.285) (0.307)   (1.076) (0.370) (0.806) (0.511)
  Observations 6849 106,507 3501 38,906 Prop. Southern white 0.895*** −0.612*** −0.326 −0.165
  Clusters 47 75 33 62   (0.338) (0.195) (0.352) (0.272)
       Observations 6849 106,507 3501 38,906
       Clusters 47 75 33 62
(3) Prop. Southern    −0.880* 0.183 Prop. Southern black    −0.891 0.649*
     (0.466) (0.268)     (0.645) (0.353)
  Observations    3488 40,602 Prop. Southern white    −0.874** −0.315**
  Clusters    32 75     (0.442) (0.151)
       Observations    3488 40,602
       Clusters    32 75
(4) Prop. Southern    −0.620** 0.0207 Prop. Southern black    −1.731** −0.0630
     (0.278) (0.213)     (0.673) (0.445)
  Observations    3488 38,104 Prop. Southern white    0.0790 0.0982
  Clusters    32 59     (0.299) (0.224)
       Observations    3488 38,104
       Clusters    32 59
  1. Notes: Instrumental variables estimates. All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education; specification (3) includes the metro level average dependent variable, lagged one decade; specification (4) includes metro-level average variables and a lagged mean dependent variable. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively