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Table 11 Outmigration and immigration, including Southern workers

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   Overall   By race
   1940 1950   1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White   Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern 0.109 1.027*** −0.210 0.719 Prop. Southern black 0.205 2.146 −2.917 −1.985
   (0.198) (0.341) (0.383) (0.860)   (2.083) (2.236) (4.304) (3.736)
  Observations 6335 98,378 3286 38,680 Prop. Southern white 0.0777 0.763*** 1.051 2.097**
  Clusters 46 79 31 79   (0.519) (0.269) (1.566) (0.880)
       Observations 6335 98,378 3286 38,680
       Clusters 46 79 31 79
(2) Prop. Southern −0.0623 0.680*** −0.676 1.807 Prop. Southern black −0.939 0.418 −0.949 1.258
   (0.317) (0.226) (1.444) (1.247)   (6.423) (1.518) (3.239) (4.524)
  Observations 6335 95,987 3286 36,217 Prop. Southern white 0.160 0.750** −0.461 2.088**
  Clusters 46 74 31 61   (1.341) (0.355) (1.088) (0.919)
       Observations 6335 95,987 3286 36,217
       Clusters 46 74 31 61
  1. Notes: Instrumental variables estimates. All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively