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Table 3 Annual wages and immigration

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   OLS IV
   1940 1950 1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern 0.152 0.0363 −0.661** 0.367 −0.110 −0.178 −1.116*** 0.394
   (0.207) (0.380) (0.313) (0.270) (0.394) (0.386) (0.324) (0.276)
  Observations 2107 107,149 1043 41,154 2081 104,029 1029 39,219
  Clusters 27 93 23 100 26 80 22 80
(2) Prop. Southern −0.243 0.329 −0.948** 0.475** −0.774*** 0.379 −1.369*** 0.367
   (0.298) (0.261) (0.411) (0.220) (0.280) (0.245) (0.507) (0.313)
  Observations 2107 104,209 1043 37,433 2081 101,339 1029 36,413
  Clusters 27 87 23 72 26 75 22 62
(3) Prop. Southern    −1.185*** 0.162    −1.827*** 0.301
     (0.343) (0.200)    (0.273) (0.251)
  Observations    1043 39,316    1029 38,078
  Clusters    23 87    22 75
(4) Prop. Southern    −1.245*** 0.210**    −2.269*** 0.104
     (0.291) (0.0993)    (0.546) (0.225)
  Observations    1043 36,473    1029 35,644
  Clusters    23 67    22 59
  1. Notes: All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education; specification (3) includes the metro level average dependent variable, lagged one decade; specification (4) includes metro-level average variables and a lagged mean dependent variable. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively