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Table 4 Annual wages and race-specific immigration

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   OLS IV
   1940 1950 1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern black −0.486 1.943*** −0.702 1.750*** −1.504* 0.708 −2.917** 0.946*
   (0.769) (0.493) (1.161) (0.279) (0.837) (0.883) (1.245) (0.519)
  Prop. Southern white 0.483 −0.579** −0.638 −0.265* 0.730 −0.739** −0.00155 −0.285*
   (0.416) (0.242) (0.401) (0.136) (0.585) (0.301) (0.606) (0.171)
  Observations 2107 107,149 1043 41,154 2081 104,029 1029 39,219
  Clusters 27 93 23 100 26 80 22 80
(2) Prop. Southern black −1.905 2.151*** −1.920 1.764*** −4.806*** 1.734*** −2.265* 0.914*
   (1.256) (0.374) (1.482) (0.353) (1.583) (0.384) (1.351) (0.483)
  Prop. Southern white 0.385 −0.530** −0.535 −0.229 1.049* −0.557*** −0.646 −0.167
   (0.472) (0.206) (0.576) (0.189) (0.580) (0.208) (0.439) (0.268)
  Observations 2107 104,209 1043 37,433 2081 101,339 1029 36,413
  Clusters 27 87 23 72 26 75 22 62
(3) Prop. Southern black    −1.086 1.330***    −2.659*** 0.787**
     (0.981) (0.259)    (0.556) (0.325)
  Prop. Southern white    −1.241*** −0.262***    −1.311** −0.272*
     (0.381) (0.0920)    (0.529) (0.141)
  Observations    1043 39,316    1029 38,078
  Clusters    23 87    22 75
(4) Prop. Southern black    −5.203*** 0.845**    −5.437*** 0.101
     (1.163) (0.393)    (1.497) (0.422)
  Prop. Southern white    −0.0541 −0.0360    −0.127 0.106
     (0.516) (0.161)    (0.487) (0.220)
  Observations    1043 36,473    1029 35,644
  Clusters    23 67    22 59
  1. Notes: All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education; specification (3) includes the metro level average dependent variable, lagged one decade; specification (4) includes metro-level average variables and a lagged mean dependent variable. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively