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Table 6 Annual wages and immigration: state-specific IV estimates

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   Overall   By race
   1940 1950   1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White   Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern −0.308 −0.448 −1.134*** 0.269 Prop. Southern black −2.212* 0.584 −2.443** 1.155**
   (0.494) (0.394) (0.307) (0.288)   (1.160) (0.834) (1.112) (0.503)
  Observations 2081 104,029 1029 39,219 Prop. Southern white 0.694 −0.841*** −0.347 −0.303**
  Clusters 26 80 22 80   (0.765) (0.291) (0.545) (0.149)
       Observations 2081 104,029 1029 39,219
       Clusters 26 80 22 80
(2) Prop. Southern −0.804*** 0.121 −1.348*** 0.325 Prop. Southern black −4.391*** 1.518*** −2.803* 1.091**
   (0.307) (0.259) (0.365) (0.308)   (1.325) (0.419) (1.522) (0.460)
  Observations 2081 101,339 1029 36,413 Prop. Southern white 0.809* −0.644*** −0.640 −0.195
  Clusters 26 75 22 62   (0.486) (0.219) (0.444) (0.276)
       Observations 2081 101,339 1029 36,413
       Clusters 26 75 22 62
(3) Prop. Southern    −1.570*** 0.260 Prop. Southern black    −2.057*** 1.067***
     (0.233) (0.198)     (0.702) (0.309)
  Observations    1 029 38,078 Prop. Southern white    −1.300*** −0.240*
  Clusters    22 75     (0.446) (0.125)
       Observations    1029 38,078
       Clusters    22 75
(4) Prop. Southern    −1.650*** 0.244 Prop. Southern black    −4.907*** 0.370
     (0.331) (0.198)     (1.335) (0.461)
  Observations    1029 35,644 Prop. Southern white    0.0116 0.160
  Clusters    22 59     (0.471) (0.195)
       Observations    1029 35,644
       Clusters    22 59
  1. Notes: All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education; specification (3) includes the metro level average dependent variable, lagged one decade; specification (4) includes metro-level average variables and a lagged mean dependent variable. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively