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Table 7 Fixed-effects and first-differenced models

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   OLS IV
   Black White Black White
Fixed effects          
Annual wages Prop. Southern −0.276 0.212 1.354*** 1.413*** −6.675* −3.420 −1.373 −0.862
   (1.948) (1.345) (0.405) (0.299) (3.731) (5.360) (2.993) (4.749)
  Observations 3150 3150 148,303 141,642 3110 3110 143,248 137,752
  Clusters 29 29 100 92 28 28 80 78
  Covariates N Y N Y N Y N Y
Weekly wages Prop. Southern −1.193 −0.488 0.847** 0.908*** −4.339 −6.411 −0.217 0.958
   (0.839) (1.053) (0.366) (0.309) (2.817) (4.691) (1.680) (4.202)
  Observations 3135 3135 147,855 141,232 3095 3095 142,825 (0.839)
  Clusters 29 29 100 92 28 28 80 78
  Covariates N Y N Y N Y N Y
First differences          
Annual wages Prop. Southern −0.188 0.445 0.254 0.297 −9.796*** −7.385** 17.00 −6.143
   (2.154) (2.150) (0.253) (0.372) (2.584) (2.905) (135.7) (8.574)
  Observations 21 21 93 67 20 20 59 59
  Covariates Y N Y N Y N Y N
Weekly wages Prop. Southern −0.144 0.154 0.0978 0.217 −5.490** −5.104** 15.35 −6.362
   (1.261) (1.294) (0.190) (0.275) (2.215) (2.262) (122.0) (8.788)
  Observations 21 21 93 67 20 20 59 59
  Covariates Y N Y N Y N Y N
  1. Notes: Covariates include white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming and average years of education and well as indicators for age and educational attainment. The dependent variable for the first-differenced models is the mean residual from a regression of wages on indicators for age and educational attainment. Standard errors for the fixed-effects estimates are clustered at the metro level, for the first-differenced estimates they are heteroskedasticity robust
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively