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Table 8 Annual wages and immigration, same metro areas

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   Overall   By race
   1940 1950   1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White   Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern −0.110 −0.422 −1.116*** 0.239 Prop. Southern black −1.504* −0.132 −2.917** 0.687
   (0.394) (0.424) (0.324) (0.302)   (0.837) (1.040) (1.245) (0.608)
  Observations 2081 73,638 1029 26,562 Prop. Southern white 0.730 −0.598* −0.00155 −0.295
  Clusters 26 26 22 22   (0.585) (0.354) (0.606) (0.195)
       Observations 2081 73,638 1029 26,562
       Clusters 26 26 22 22
(2) Prop. Southern −0.774*** 0.252 −1.369*** 0.164 Prop. Southern black −4.806*** 0.923 −2.265* 0.522
   (0.280) (0.240) (0.507) (0.385)   (1.583) (0.582) (1.351) (0.616)
  Observations 2081 73,638 1029 26,562 Prop. Southern white 1.049* −0.0756 −0.646 −0.0986
  Clusters 26 26 22 22   (0.580) (0.187) (0.439) (0.265)
       Observations 2081 73,638 1029 26,562
       Clusters 26 26 22 22
(3) Prop. Southern    −1.827*** 0.316 Prop. Southern black    −2.659*** 0.963***
     (0.273) (0.318)     (0.556) (0.324)
  Observations    1029 26,562 Prop. Southern white    −1.311** −0.357***
  Clusters    22 22     (0.529) (0.131)
       Observations    1029 26,562
       Clusters    22 22
(4) Prop. Southern    −2.269*** −0.0549 Prop. Southern black    −5.437*** −0.398
     (0.546) (0.241)     (1.497) (0.678)
  Observations    1029 26,562 Prop. Southern white    −0.127 0.171
  Clusters    22 22     (0.487) (0.184)
       Observations    1029 26,562
       Clusters    22 22
  1. Notes: Instrumental variables estimates. All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education; specification (3) includes the metro level average dependent variable, lagged one decade; specification (4) includes metro-level average variables and a lagged mean dependent variable. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively