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Table 9 Native outmigration and recent immigration, same metro areas

From: Immigration and wages: new evidence from the African American Great Migration

   Overall   By race
   1940 1950   1940 1950
Specification   Black White Black White   Black White Black White
(1) Prop. Southern −0.0468 1.214*** −0.219 0.572 Prop. Southern black 1.506 4.393 1.854 −2.366
   (0.267) (0.394) (0.277) (0.804)   (3.607) (3.363) (5.019) (3.320)
  Observations 1996 68,564 940 24,704 Prop. Southern white −0.593 0.493* −1.167 2.173***
  Clusters 26 26 20 20   (1.011) (0.299) (1.993) (0.824)
       Observations 1996 68,564 940 24,704
       Clusters 26 26 20 20
(2) Prop. Southern 0.223 0.768*** 0.295 1.355 Prop. Southern black 7.386 6.803 2.627 −0.254
   (0.609) (0.226) (2.028) (1.013)   (6.773) (5.551) (4.570) (3.497)
  Observations 1996 68,564 940 24,704 Prop. Southern white −1.697 −0.597 −1.193 1.995***
  Clusters 26 26 20 20   (1.128) (1.038) (1.562) (0.653)
       Observations 1996 68,564 940 24,704
       Clusters 26 26 20 20
  1. Notes: Instrumental variables estimates. All specifications include indicators for age and education; specification (2) includes white and black metro-level percent employed in manufacturing, percent farming, and average years of education. Regressions weighted by the number of observations used to calculate metro-level covariates. Standard errors, clustered by metro area, reported in parentheses
  2. “***”, “**”, and “*” denote significance at the 1, 5, and 10 % levels, respectively