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Table 1 Hazard models estimating time from immigration until first time annual income >2 price base amounts, 1994 immigrants

From: Age at immigration matters for labor market integration—the Swedish example

  GDP group 1   GDP group 2   GDP group 3  
Parameter Parameter estimate Pr > ChiSq Hazard ratio Parameter estimate Pr > ChiSq Hazard ratio Parameter estimate Pr > ChiSq Hazard ratio
Reference: age 19–29 years
 Age 30–34 0.197 <0.0001 1.217 −0.068 0.000 0.934 −0.027 0.419 0.974
 Age 35–39 0.129 0.007 1.138 −0.164 <0.0001 0.849 −0.059 0.164 0.943
 Age 40–44 0.130 0.025 1.139 −0.397 <0.0001 0.672 −0.279 <0.0001 0.757
 Age 45–49 −0.012 0.845 0.988 −0.868 <0.0001 0.420 −0.688 <0.0001 0.502
 Age 50–54 −0.363 <0.0001 0.696 −1.866 <0.0001 0.155 −1.118 <0.0001 0.327
 Age 55–59 −0.634 <0.0001 0.530 −3.458 <0.0001 0.031 −2.528 <0.0001 0.080
 Age 60–64 −1.037 <0.0001 0.354 −5.309 <0.0001 0.005 −2.546 <0.0001 0.078
 Woman −0.233 <0.0001 0.792 −0.284 <0.0001 0.752 −0.277 <0.0001 0.758
Reference: no children
 Woman and 1–2 children −0.283 <0.0001 0.754 0.153 <0.0001 1.165 −0.095 0.015 0.910
 Woman and 3 or more children −0.563 <0.0001 0.570 −0.065 0.058 0.937 −0.221 0.001 0.802
 Man and 1–2 children 0.139 0.013 1.149 0.142 <0.0001 1.152 0.060 0.217 1.062
 Man and 3 or more children 0.068 0.533 1.070 −0.177 <0.0001 0.838 −0.145 0.053 0.865
 Partner 0.005 0.919 1.005 0.092 <0.0001 1.097 0.029 0.376 1.029
 Swedish partner 0.058 0.320 1.060 0.210 <0.0001 1.234 0.267 <0.0001 1.306
Reference: compulsory
 No information on education −0.460 <0.0001 0.631 −1.482 <0.0001 0.227 −1.229 <0.0001 0.292
 Less than compulsory −0.196 0.049 0.822 −0.260 <0.0001 0.771 −0.104 0.068 0.901
 Secondary 2 years 0.191 0.010 1.210 0.204 <0.0001 1.227 0.300 <0.0001 1.350
 Secondary 3 years 0.138 0.063 1.148 0.275 <0.0001 1.316 0.213 <0.0001 1.237
 Upper secondary less than 3 years 0.053 0.471 1.055 0.267 <0.0001 1.306 0.290 <0.0001 1.337
 Upper secondary 3 years or more 0.373 <0.0001 1.453 0.299 <0.0001 1.349 0.337 <0.0001 1.401
Reference: larger Stockholm
 Larger Göteborg −0.216 <0.0001 0.806 −0.261 <0.0001 0.770 −0.309 <0.0001 0.734
 Larger Malmö −0.148 0.004 0.862 −0.320 <0.0001 0.726 −0.433 <0.0001 0.649
 Other Sweden −0.202 <0.0001 0.817 −0.138 <0.0001 0.871 −0.128 <0.0001 0.880
 Forest counties −0.153 0.001 0.858 −0.166 <0.0001 0.847 −0.135 0.001 0.874
Reference: Finland Reference: Poland Reference: Iran
 DE −0.123 0.049 0.884 FY −0.058 0.217 0.944 IQ −0.091 0.054 0.913
 DK 0.336 <0.0001 1.399 BA 0.100 0.029 1.105 SO −0.174 0.001 0.841
 NO or IS −0.173 0.000 0.841 TR −0.114 0.068 0.892 TH 0.670 <0.0001 1.953
 UK −0.066 0.297 0.936 CL 0.185 0.023 1.203 LB −0.139 0.051 0.871
 USA or CA −0.315 <0.0001 0.730 RO 0.248 0.006 1.282 CN 0.159 0.035 1.172
 Other Asia −0.596 <0.0001 0.551 HU −0.026 0.847 0.975 SY −0.149 0.036 0.862
 Other EU15 −0.134 0.011 0.875 FSU −0.041 0.470 0.960 IN 0.090 0.444 1.095
     GR −0.180 0.100 0.835 VN 0.237 0.023 1.267
     KR −1.172 <0.0001 0.310 ET or ER 0.498 <0.0001 1.645
     CO −0.132 0.251 0.876 AF −0.128 0.247 0.880
     C or SA −0.016 0.785 0.984 No Afr 0.196 0.001 1.216
     EU16 −0.193 0.009 0.825 SS AFR 0.152 0.028 1.165
     Oth EUR −0.058 0.217 0.944 Oth ME −0.263 0.006 0.769
         BD or PK 0.235 <0.0001 1.264
  1. DE Germany; DK Denmark; NO Norway; IS Iceland; UK United Kingdom; CA Canada; Other Asia other Asia, Australia, and Oceania; Other EU15 Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Austria; FY former Yugoslavia; TR Turkey; CL Chile; RO Romania; HU Hungary; FSU Former Soviet Union; GR = Greece; KR Korea; CO Colombia; C or SA central or south America; EU16 EU 16–27 Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czech Republic; Oth EUR other Europe; IQ Iraq; SO Somalia; TH Thailand; LB Lebanon; CN China; SY Syria; IN India; VN Vietnam; ET Ethiopia; ER Eritrea; AF Afghanistan; No Afr North Africa; SS Afr Sub-Saharan Africa; Oth ME other Middle East; BD Bangladesh; PK Pakistan; BA Bosnia and Herzegovina