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Table 4 Regression models comparing earnings between Canadian-educated immigrant women and Canadian-born women with a university degree, 1991 and 2006 cohorts

From: International students, immigration and earnings growth: the effect of a pre-immigration host-country university education

  1991 cohort 2006 cohort
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Coefficient
Canadian-educated immigrants −0.617 *** −0.624 *** −0.343 *** −0.540 *** −0.374 *** −0.021
Years since the base year 0.040 *** 0.038 *** 0.037 *** 0.060 *** 0.046 *** 0.052 ***
Squared years since base year 0.000 *** 0.000 ** 0.000 * −0.002 −0.001 −0.001
Canadian-educated immigrants interacted with years since base year 0.071 *** 0.067 *** 0.070*** 0.061 ** 0.032 * 0.047 ***
Canadian-educated immigrants interacted with squared years since base year −0.003 *** −0.003 *** −0.003 *** −0.005 −0.004 −0.005 *
Age in the base year −0.054 −0.270 *** −0.164 ** −0.290 ***
Age squared 0.001 0.004 *** 0.003 ** 0.005 ***
Graduate degrees 0.276 *** 0.235 *** 0.201 *** 0.170 ***
Months of study in a year −0.109 *** −0.091 *** −0.087 *** −0.074 ***
French 0.082 ** 0.093 *** 0.103 *** 0.071 **
Other languages −0.178 −0.107 −0.163 0.005
Visible minorities 0.046 0.144 *** −0.020 0.020
Atlantic region −0.148 *** −0.086 * −0.060 * 0.015
Quebec −0.151 *** −0.065 * −0.253 *** −0.125 ***
Manitoba and Saskatchewan −0.211 *** −0.168 *** −0.057 * −0.024
Alberta −0.067 * −0.088 ** 0.066 * 0.047
British Columbia −0.167 *** −0.106 *** −0.127 *** −0.071 **
Regional unemployment rate −0.003 −0.007 −0.007 −0.009 *
Low prior earnings 0.078 0.252 ***
Medium prior earnings 0.355 *** 0.573 ***
High prior earnings 0.822 *** 1.078 ***
Years of prior Canadian work experience 0.015 * 0.017 **
Intercept 10.448 *** 11.086 *** 13.935 *** 10.522 *** 12.881 *** 14.172 ***
  1. Note: the model R-squared is 0.077, 0.115, and 0.201 in models 1, 2 and 3, respectively, for the 1991 cohort, it is 0.066, 0.146, and 0.250 in models 1, 2 and 3, respectively, for the 2006 cohort. Sources: Statistics Canada, 1991 Census and Longitudinal Worker File linkage; 2006 Census and T1 personal tax file linkage; Temporary Residents File, Immigrant Landing File and T1 personal tax file linkage; and Longitudinal Immigration Database
  2. … not applicable
  3. *Significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05), **p <0.01, ***p < 0.001