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Table 5 Panel regression estimates

From: Turkish migration to Europe: a modified gravity model analysis

ln(Migration ijt ) OLS SOLS TOBIT FE
ln(GDP jt /GDP it ) 1.895*** 2.090*** 2.149*** 2.000***
(0.202) (0.240) (0.254) (0.249)
ln(Population it ) 3.221*** 3.175*** 3.201*** 6.242***
(0.468) (0.616) (0.648) (1.334)
ln(Population jt ) 1.029*** 0.963*** 0.985*** 0.965***
(0.113) (0.156) (0.168) (0.158)
Distance ij −1.498*** −1.985*** −2.064*** −1.958***
(0.374) (0.452) (0.463) (0.446)
Urbanization Rate jt 0.455 1.158 1.187 1.219
(0.772) (1.271) (1.339) (1.256)
ln(Area j ) −0.0445 0.0313 0.0270 0.0304
(0.0903) (0.124) (0.134) (0.120)
Contiguity ij 2.589*** 2.826*** 2.869*** 2.784***
(0.704) (0.751) (0.748) (0.785)
Community j 2.612*** 2.972*** 2.992*** 3.009***
(0.328) (0.459) (0.473) (0.464)
Landlocked j 0.317 0.617* 0.659** 0.683**
(0.280) (0.315) (0.323) (0.304)
Year 1970 −0.503
(0.667)
Year 1980 −0.795
(0.543)
Year 1990 −1.631***
(0.376)
Year 2000 −2.473***
(0.554)
Year 2010 −3.117***
(0.718)
Year 2013 −2.445***
(0.745)
Constant −57.58*** −53.37*** −53.65*** −106.3***
(9.046) (10.97) (11.36) (23.26)
Observations 154 165 165 165
R-squared 0.822 0.765 0.775
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1