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Table 7 Variable definitions, data definitions and sources

From: Turkish migration to Europe: a modified gravity model analysis

Variable Definition Source
Migration ijt Migration stock World Bank
GDP jt Destination country’s GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) World Bank
GDP it Origin country’s GDP, PPP (constant 2011 international $) World Bank
Population it Origin country’s total population World Bank
Population jt Destination country’s total population World Bank
Distance ij Simple distance between capitals (capitals, km) CEPII
Urbanization Rate jt Urbanization rate of the destination country World Bank
Area j Land area of the destination country CEPII
Contiguity ij A dummy variable indicating whether the source and the destination country are contiguous. CEPII
Landlocked j A dummy variable indicating whether the destination country is landlocked or not CEPII
Community j A dummy variable indicating the existence of the Turkish community in the destination country TÜBİTAK